Phytochemical Investigation and In vitro Antioxidant Potency of Root Bark of Brenania brieyi Fractions


  • Ifeoma F. Chukwuma Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Chinelo C. Nkwocha Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeri
  • Lawrence U. S. Ezeanyika Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Victor N. Ogugua Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria


Oxidative stress, Proximate components, Phytochemicals, Antioxidants activity, Brenania brieyi


Excessive generation of oxidant species is a leading factor in the pathogenesis of several diseases and disorders. We investigated the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of methanol, and chloroform fraction of the root bark of Brenania brieyi using standard in vitro
analytical methods. Our results show the percentage proximate composition as moisture (15.33 ± 3.03), ash (4.00 ± 0.02), crude fiber (7.60 ± 0.80), fats (2.00 ± 0.10), proteins (6.65 ± 0.35), and  carbohydrate (64.00 ± 1.06). Total phenols were 547.67 ± 5.51; 522 ± 13.32 µg/100 g GAE and flavonoids were 62.60 ± 13.50; 8.29 ± 2.61 mg/100g for methanol, and chloroform fractions respectively. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity in percentage (%) at 500 µg/mL was: 96.44 ± 0.79; 95.19 ± 1.98, and 54.56 ± 2.06 for methanol fraction, chloroform fraction, and ascorbic acid respectively. Percentage total antioxidant capacity was 85.33 ± 0.89; 54.79 ± 8.21; 65.17 ± 8.27 at 31.3 µg/mL but increased at 1000 µg/mL to 89.32 ± 4.26; 64.47 ± 6.60; 94.51 ± 4.08 for methanol fraction, chloroform fraction, and ascorbic acid, respectively. The reduction of ferric ions by methanol fraction was comparable to gallic acid. Methanol fraction portrayed better antioxidant potential in all the antioxidant models used as revealed from its IC50 values of 19.10 and 1.12 µg/mL compared with 26.00 and 11.74 5 µg/mL obtained in chloroform fraction in DPPH, and TAC assays respectively. Our results suggest that Brenania brieyi root bark possesses antioxidant activity, and maybe employed as drug target in averting oxidative stress complications. 


Ghasemi-Dehnoo M, Amini-Khoei H, Lorigooini Z, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in diabetes mellitus. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2020; 13(10):431- 438.

Sargazi S, Galavi H, Zarei S. Evaluation of the attenuative effect of tert-butylhydroquinone against diazinon-induced oxidative stress on hematological indices in male Wistar rats. Biomed Rep. 2018; 8(6):565-570.

Hussain T, Tan B, Yin Y, Blachier F, Tossou MCB, Rahu N. Oxidative stress, and inflammation: What polyphenol can do for us? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016; 2016:7432797.

Sarangarajan R, Meera S, Rukkumani R, Sankar P, Anuradha G. Antioxidants: Friend or foe? Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017; 10(12):1111–1116.

Aryal S, Baniya MK, Danekhu K, Kunwar P, Gurung R, Koirala N. Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoid Content, and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Vegetables from Western Nepal. Plants. 2019; 8:96-107.

Ekin S, Bayramoglu M, Goktasoglu A, OzgokcenF, Kiziltas H.Antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Crataegusmeyeri pojark leaves and contents of vitamin, trace element. J Chil Chem Soc. 2017; 62(4):3661-3667.

Leong PK and Ko KM. Induction of glutathione antioxidant response /glutathione redox cycling by nutraceuticals: Mechanism of protection against oxidant-induced cell death. Curr Trends Nutr. 2016; 1(1):2-9.

Kruk J, Aboul-Enein HY, Kładna A, Bowser JE. Oxidative stress in biological systems and its relation with pathophysiological functions: the effect of physical activity on cellular redox homeostasis. Free Rad Res. 2019; 53(5):497-521.

Mondal A, Maity TK, Bishayee A. Analgesic and Antiinflammatory activities of Quercetin -3pmethoxy-4- glucosyl-7-glucoside isolated from Indian Medicinal Plant Melothria heterophylla. Med. 2019; 6:59-69.

Jani DK and Goswami S. Antidiabetic activity of Cassia angustifolia Vahl. and Raphanus sativus Linn. leaf extracts. J Trad Compl Med. 2020; 10:124-131.

Rani AA, Punitha SMJ, Rema M. Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Cassia auriculata-an in-vitro study. Int Res J Pharm Appl Sci. 2014; 4(1):57-60.

Abubakar I, Mann A, Mathew JT. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and anti-nutritional properties of root-bark and leaf methanol extracts of SennaalataL. grown in Nigeria. Afr J Pure Appl Chem. 2015; 9(5):91-97.

Dragomanova S, Tancheva L, Georgieva M, Klisurov R. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of monoterpenoid myrtenal in rodents. J IMAB. 2019; 25 (1):2406-2413.

Papuc C, Goran GV, Predescu CN, Nicorescu V, Stefan G. Plant Polyphenols as Antioxidant and Antibacterial Agents for Shelf‐Life Extension of Meat and Meat Products: Classification, Structures, Sources, and Action Mechanisms. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2017; 16(6):1243-1268.

Odo IF, Ezeanyika LUS, Ogugua VN, Joshua PE, Okagu IU. FTIR and GC-MS spectroscopic analysis of methanol and chloroform extracts of brenania brieyi root bark. Am J Res Commun. 2017; 5:44-54.

AOAC. Official method of Analysis of Association of Analytical chemist (AOAC) International. (17thed.). Horowitz Maryland; 2002. 1:12-20 p.

Harborne JB. Phytochemicals Methods: A Guide to Modern Technique of Plant Analysis. (2nded.). New York: Chapman and Hall; 1998. 88-125 p.

Koleva II, Van- Beek TA, Linssen JPH, de Groot A, Evastatieva LN. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: A comparative study on three testing methods. Phytochem Anal. 2002; 13(1):8-12.

Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilisleptophylla L. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2012; 12:221-232.

Oyaizu M. Studies on products of browning reactions: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. JPN J Nutr. 1986; 44:307-315.

Ojo OA, Ajiboye BO, Ojo AB, Onikanni SA, Olarewaju OI. Phytochemical, proximate analysis, and mineral composition of aqueous crude extract of Ficus asperifolia Miq. J Adv Med Life Sci. 2014; 1(1):1-4.

Okafor OE, Ezeanyika LUS, Ujowundu CUO. Effect of traditional processing techniques on the proximate and mineral compositions of jack fruit (Artocarpusheterophyllus) seeds. ICFNCE’ 2015, Retrieved 25th October 2016.

Agbafor KN, Engwa AG, Obiudu I K. Analysis of the chemical composition of leaves and roots of Ageratum conyzoides. Int. J Curr Res Acad Rev. 2015; 3(11):60-65.

Gbenga A, Ajayi IO, Adanigbo P. Evaluation of the Nutritional and Medicinal Value of Raw and Fermented Lagenaria breviflora Root. Pharm Chem J. 2020; 7(1):7-9.

Odo IF, Ezeanyika LUS, Uchendu N. The relationship among body composition and body mass index in a population of adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci. 2015; 4(1):884-897.

Odo IF, Ezeanyika LUS, Joshua PE, Uchendu ON, Ekwueme NK, Ezugwu AL. Idoko ND. Prevalence and pattern of overweight and obesity in adolescents living in urban and rural settings of Enugu State, Nigeria. World Eng Appl Sci J. 2014; 5(2):23-29.

Kozarski M, Klaus A, Jakovljevic D, Todorovic N, Vunduk J, Petrovic P, Niksic M, Vrvic, MM. Griensven LV. Antioxidants of edible mushroom. Molelules 2015; 20:19489- 19525.

Mukhtar AE, Abubakar A, Chukwubuike OG. In-vitro Antioxidant Activities of Different Stem Bark Extracts of Irvingia gabonensis (Irvingiaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(6):223-227.

Lakshan SAT, Jayanath NY, Abeysekara WPKM, Abeysekara WKSM. A commercial potential Blue Pea (Clitoriaternatea L.) flower extract incorporated beverage having functional properties. Evid-Based Compl Altern Med. 2019; 2019:1-13.

Dwivedi MK, Sonter S, Mishra S, Patel DK, Singh P K. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Carica papaya flowers. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci. 2020; 9:23-33.

Cory H, Passarelli S, Szeto J, Tamez M, and Mattei J. The Role of Polyphenols in Human Health and Food Systems. Front Nutr. 2018; 5:87.

Adusei S, Otchere JK, Oteng P, Mensah RQ, Tei-Mensah E. Phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and metal chelating capacity of Tetrapleura tetraptera. Heliyon. 2019; 5:e02762.

Silva RFM and Pogacnik L. Polyphenols from food and natural products: Neuroprotection and safety. Antioxid. 2020; 9(1):61.

Priyanka B, Anitha K, Shirisha K, Janipasha SK, Dipankar B, Rajesh K. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of ethanolic root extract of Albizialebbeck (L.) Benth.Int Res J Pharm Appl Sci (IRJPAS). 2013; 3(2):93-101.

Razali N, Aziz AA, Lim CY, Junit SM. Investigation into the effects of antioxidant-rich extract of Tamarindus indica leaf on antioxidant enzyme activities, oxidative stress, and gene expression profiles in HepG2 cells. Peer J. 2015; 3:e1292.

Aliyu AB, Ibrahim MA, Musa AM, Musa AO, Kiplimo JJ, Oyewale AO. Free radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of root extracts of Anchomanes difformis Engl. (Araceae). Acta Pol Pharm Drug Res. 2013; 70(1):115-121.

Batool R, Khan MR, Sajid M, Ali S, Zahra Z. Estimation of phytochemical constituents and in vitro antioxidant potencies of Brachychiton populneus (Schott & Endl.) R.Br. BMC Chem. 2019; 13:32-46.

Ezeja MI, Omeh YN, Onoja SO, Ukaonu IH. Antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities of the methanolic leaf extract of Cissus aralioides. Am J Pharm Sci. 2015; 3(1):1-6.

Zhao Z (Iron and oxidizing species in oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s disease. Aging Med. 2019; 2:82-87.

Lakshan SAT, Pathirana CK, Jayanath NY, Abeysekara WPKM, Abeysekara WKSM. Antioxidant and selected chemical properties of the flowers of three different varieties of Butterfly Pea (Clitoriaternatea L.). Ceylon J Sci. 2020; 49(2):195-201.

Adedayo BC, Adebayo AA, Oboh G. In Vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Cholinesterase Properties of Essential Oils from Pepper Fruits (Dennettia tripetala G. Baker). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(9):596-600.

Majouli K, Hamd A, Hlila MB Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of Hertiacheirifolia L. roots extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2017; 10:1134-1139




How to Cite

Chukwuma, I. F., Nkwocha, C. C., Ezeanyika, L. U. S., & Ogugua, V. N. (2020). Phytochemical Investigation and In vitro Antioxidant Potency of Root Bark of Brenania brieyi Fractions: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 4(11), 970–975. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)