Ameliorative and Synergetic Effects of Co-Administration of Honey and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) Extract on Lead-Induced Wistar Rats


  • Ayandiran T. Akinpelu Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
  • Ogundiran M. Akinloye Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
  • Fawole O. Olubanjo Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
  • Kehinde D. Busuyi Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
  • John O. Fatoki Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
  • Olanipekun A. Stephen Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
  • Oloye O. Adewale National Biotechnology Development Agency (NABDA



Synergistic effects, nephrotoxicity, Lead, Antioxidants, Vernonia amygdalina, Honey


Lead is a toxic environmental pollutant that disrupts oxidant-antioxidant balance, causes inflammation, and can lead to organ dysfunction. This study investigates the ameliorative and synergistic effects of honey and Vernonia amygdalina (VA) on lead-induced wistar rats. The study involved 35 Wistar rats, divided into five groups. Group 1 served as the control and were given feed and water only; group 2 was administered lead acetate (2.2 mg/kg) only; group 3 was treated with lead acetate (2.2 mg/kg) + honey (5g/kg); group 4 was treated with lead acetate (2.2 mg/kg) + bitter leaf extract (300mg/kg); and group 5 received lead acetate (2.2 mg/kg) + honey (5g/kg) + bitter leaf extract (300mg/kg). The animals were dosed daily orally for 6 weeks via oral cannula. After the treatment period, the rats were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital, and their blood and kidney samples were collected for further biochemical and histological analyses, respectively. The lead-exposed rats exhibited kidney damage and had high creatinine, urea, and malondialdehyde levels, while honey, bitter leaf, or both reduced these levels and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase levels. The histological data revealed that honey and bitter leaf may protect against lead-induced kidney damage when compared to the lead-induced group alone. The study revealed that honey and bitter leaf treatments effectively mitigate lead-induced kidney damage, with combining both methods being the most effective method for enhancing kidney function and structure.


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How to Cite

Akinpelu, A. T., Akinloye, O. M., Olubanjo, F. O., Busuyi, K. D., Fatoki, J. O., Stephen, O. A., & Adewale, O. O. (2024). Ameliorative and Synergetic Effects of Co-Administration of Honey and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf) Extract on Lead-Induced Wistar Rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(6), 7431–7435.