Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vitex negundo L in Experimental Animals


  • Tu T.T. Nguyen Traditional Medicine Faculty, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Phuong T. Do Traditional Medicine Faculty, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Lan T. N. Nguyen Department of Internal Medicine, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Anh T.V. Pham Department of Pharmacology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam


sub-chronic toxicity, acute toxicity, herbal extract, Vitex negundo L


Vitex negundo L is a medicinal plant with many notable therapeutic effects. While the beneficial effects of Vitex negundo have been widely described, evidence of this herb’s safety, such as acute and sub-chronic toxicity effects, remains scarce. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of this herb through acute and sub-chronic toxicity evaluation of aqueous ethanol extracts of its leaves in experimental animals. The acute toxicity study of aqueous ethanol leaf extract of Vitex negundo was performed in mature Swiss mice. The sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted in rabbits following the World Health Organization’s guidance on evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines. In the acute toxicity study, the Vitex negundo leaf extract at 620.25 g/kg/day - the highest tolerable dose in mice, yielded no oral toxicity. In the sub-chronic toxicity study, Vitex negundo was administered orally to 2 groups of rabbits at doses of 3.2 g/kg/day and 9.6 g/kg/day, respectively, for eight weeks. The results showed no sign of general toxicity. There were no changes in growth or hematological parameters, liver and kidney functions, and no effect in the macromorphology and micromorphology of the treated animals’ livers and kidneys.


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How to Cite

Nguyen, T. T., Do, P. T., Nguyen, L. T. N., & Pham, A. T. (2024). Acute and Sub-Chronic Toxicity Studies of Aqueous Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vitex negundo L in Experimental Animals: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(1), 5806–5810. Retrieved from