Chemical Profiling, Antifungal and Anti-inflammatory Evaluations of Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum and Curcuma caesia Mixture from Riau, Sumatera Island, Indonesia


  • Siti Juariah Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Abdurrab University, Pekanbaru 28291, Indonesia
  • Erwina Juliantari Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Abdurrab University, Pekanbaru 28291, Indonesia
  • Dika Hanggara Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Abdurrab University, Pekanbaru 28291, Indonesia
  • Alfin Surya Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Abdurrab University, Pekanbaru 28291, Indonesia
  • Susi Endrini Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Abdurrab University, Pekanbaru 28291, Indonesia


Nitric oxide, Phytotherapy, Curcuma caesia, Zingiber officinale var. rubrum, Anti-inflammatory, Antifungal


Invasive fungal infections can cause inflammation and stimulate immune response. Antifungals like plants possessing inherent anti-inflammatory activity, which can lead to rapid symptomatic relief while providing a mycologic cure is imperative. Plants with evidence of antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities are red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. rubrum) and black turmeric (Curcuma caesia). The study aimed to investigate the chemical profile, the antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract of red ginger and black turmeric mixture in vitro. Chemical profiling was done using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometry (LC-MS). Antifungal activity was tested using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zone. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested by measuring the toxicity and inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells. From the results of the LC-MS analysis, 22 compounds were identified from the ethanol extract of red ginger and black turmeric mixture. The mixture extract exhibited potent antifungal activity; with the 80% concentration being the most effective with an inhibition zone diameter of 11.6 mm. The extract exhibited a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. The 7.5 μg/mL and 15 μg/mL of the mixture extract significantly reduced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells by 0.62 and 19.854%, respectively. The mixture extract at 1000 µg/mL gave the highest proliferation inhibition of RAW 264.7 cells. On the basis of the results of the study, the extract of red ginger and black turmeric mixture has the potential to be used as an alternative antifungal and anti-inflammatory agent.


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How to Cite

Juariah, S., Juliantari, E., Hanggara, D., Surya, A., & Endrini, S. (2024). Chemical Profiling, Antifungal and Anti-inflammatory Evaluations of Ethanol Extract of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum and Curcuma caesia Mixture from Riau, Sumatera Island, Indonesia: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(1), 5794–5800. Retrieved from