Effect of Temperature and Water Stress on the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil

http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i1.11

Authors

  • Abdelouahid Laftouhi Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco. 
  • Meriem Slimani Sustainable Agriculture Management Research Laboratory, Sidi Bennour Higher School of Technology, Chouaïb Doukkali University, El Jadida, Morocco
  • Amal Elrherabi Bioresources, Biotechnology, Ethnopharmacology, and Health Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Mohamed First University, Mohammed VI Boulevard, P.O. Box: 717, 60000, Oujda, Morocco
  • Mohamed Bouhrim Biological Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco
  • Mohamed Adil Mahraz Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco
  • Amine M. Idrissi Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco. 
  • Noureddine Eloutassi Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco.
  • Zakia Rais Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco. 
  • Abdslam Taleb Environmental Process Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology Mohammedia, Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco
  • Mustapha Taleb Laboratory of Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment Engineering, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Sciences Fes, Morocco. 

Keywords:

Climate change, Antidiabetic activity, Antioxidant activity, Bioactive compounds, Essential oil, Thymus vulgaris

Abstract

Thymus vulgaris L. (family Lamiaceae) is an aromatic medicinal plant well-known for its essential oil and therapeutic values. It thrives across Europe, Western Asia, the Mediterranean, and Northwestern Africa. This study aims to investigate the effect of climate change on the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities of Thymus vulgaris essential oil. Essential oils were extracted from three distinct Thymus vulgaris samples (S1 – S3) cultivated under different climatic conditions. S1 was cultivated under normal seasonal condition; S2 and S3 were cultivated under controlled conditions; 5°C temperature increase and 50% precipitation (S2), 10°C temperature increase and 75% precipitation (S3). Chemical constituents of the essential oils were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity was assessed using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays. The antidiabetic activity was assessed via the α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. GC-MS analysis identified 23 compounds with varying proportions in the three essential oil samples. The findings showed that S1 had the most potent antioxidant activity with IC50 values of 461.83±10.49 µg/mL and 1508.83±7.22 µg/mL in the DPPH and ABTS assays, respectively, while S3 exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in the FRAP assay, with IC50 value of 244.64±1.34 µg/mL. For the antidiabetic activity, S1 showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity, while S2 exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory effect. This study sheds light on Thymus vulgaris' adaptability and therapeutic potential under changing climatic conditions. These findings underscore the importance of understanding these dynamics for future applications.

Author Biography

Mohamed Bouhrim, Biological Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, Sultan Moulay Slimane University, Beni Mellal, Morocco

Laboratories TBC, Laboratory of Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lille, 59000 Lille, France

 

References

Ghadirnezhad Shiade SR, Fathi A, Taghavi F. Plants’ responses under drought stress conditions: Effects of strategic management approaches. J Plant Nutr. 2023; 46(9):2198-2230.

Pluhár Z, Szabó D, Sárosi S. Effects of different factors influencing the essential oil properties of Thymus vulgaris L. Plant Sci Today .2016; 3(3):312.

Ahmadi H, Babalar M, Sarcheshmeh MAA. Effects of exogenous application of citrulline on prolonged water stress damages in hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.): Antioxidant activity, biochemical indices, and essential oils profile. Food Chem. 2020; 333:127433.

Al-Huqail A, El-Dakak RM, Sanad MN. Effects of Climate Temperature and Water Stress on Plant Growth and Accumulation of Antioxidant Compounds in Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leafy Vegetable. Scientifica. 2020; 2020:1-12.

Albergaria ET, Oliveira AFM, Albuquerque UP. The effect of water deficit stress on the composition of phenolic compounds in medicinal plants. South Afr J Bot. 2020; 131:12-17.

García-Caparrós P, Romero M, Llanderal A. Effects of Drought Stress on Biomass, Essential Oil Content, Nutritional Parameters, and Costs of Production in Six Lamiaceae Species. Water. 2019; 11(3):573.

Ghanbarzadeh Z, Mohsenzadeh S, Rowshan V. Evaluation of the growth, essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Dracocephalum moldavica under water deficit stress and symbiosis with Claroideoglomus etunicatum and Micrococcus yunnanensis. Sci Horticul. 2019; 256:108652.

Khalil N, Fekry M, Bishr M. Foliar spraying of salicylic acid induced accumulation of phenolics, increased radical scavenging activity and modified the composition of the essential oil of water stressed Thymus vulgaris L. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2018; 123:65-74.

El-Akhal F, Guemmouh R, Maniar S, Taghzouti K, Lalami AEO. Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils of Thymus Vulgaris and Origanum majorana (Lamiaceae) against the Malaria Vector Anopheles labranchiae (Diptera: Culicidae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016; 8(3):372-376.

Yang X, Lu M, Wang Y. Response Mechanism of Plants to Drought Stress. Horticul. 2021; 7(3):50.

Brito C, Dinis LT, Moutinho-Pereira J, Correia CM. Drought Stress Effects and Olive Tree Acclimation under a Changing Climate. Plants (Bassel). 2019; 8(7):232

Clayton S. Climate anxiety: Psychological responses to climate change. J Anxiety Disord. 2020; 74:102263.

Touhami A, Chefrour A, Boukhari A, Ismail F. Comparative study of chemical compositions and antimicrobial effect of different genius of Thymus harvested during two period of development. J App Pharm Sci. 2016; 6(8):051-056.

Miura K, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method. J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(7):1845‑1851.

Giordani R, Hadef Y, Kaloustian J. Compositions and antifungal activities of essential oils of some Algerian aromatic plants. Fitoter. 2008; 79(3):199‑203.

Christian EJ and Goggi AS. Aromatic plant oils as fungicide for organic corn production. Crop Sci. 2008; 48(5):1941‑1951.

Ahmed A, Ayoub K, Chaima AJ, Hanaa L, Abdelaziz C. Effect of drying methods on yield, chemical composition and bioactivities of essential oil obtained from Moroccan Mentha pulegium L. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol. 2018; 16:638‑643.

Mssillou I, Agour A, El Ghouizi A, Hamamouch N, Lyoussi B, Derwich E. Chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and antifungal effects of essential oil from Laurus nobilis L. flowers growing in Morocco. J Food Qual. 2020; 2020:1‑8.

Agour A, Mssillou I, Saghrouchni H, Bari A, Lyoussi B, Derwich E. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Potential and Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oils of Haplophyllum tuberculatum (Forsskal) A. Juss from Morocco. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(12):1108‑1115.

El-Hilaly J, Hmammouchi M, Lyoussi B. Ethnobotanical studies and economic evaluation of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco). J Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 86(2‑3):149‑158.

Amarti F, El Ajjouri M, Ghanmi M, Satrani B, Aafi A, Farah A, Khia A, Guedira A, Rahouti M, Chaouch A. Composition chimique, activité antimicrobiennne et antioxydante de l’huile essentielle de Thymus zygis du Maroc. Phytothér 2011; 9(3):149‑157.

Laftouhi A, Eloutassi N, Drioua S, Ech-Chihbi E, Rais Z, Abdellaoui A, Taleb A, Beniken M, Taleb M. Impact of Water Stress and Temperature on Metabolites and Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (Phytochemical Screening, Extraction, and Gas Chromatography). J Ecol Engineer 2023; 24(5):237‑248.

Laftouhi A, Eloutassi N, Ech-Chihbi E, Rais Z, Abdellaoui A, Taleb A, Beniken M, Nafidi H-A, Salamatullah AM, Bourhia M, Taleb M. The Impact of Environmental Stress on the Secondary Metabolites and the Chemical Compositions of the Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants Used as Food Supplements. Sustainab. 2023; 15(10):7842.

Şahin F, Güllüce M, Daferera D, Sökmen A, Sökmen M, Polissiou M, Agar G, Özer H. Biological activities of the essential oils and methanol extract of Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare in the Eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Food Contr. 2004; 15(7):549‑557.

Pukalskas A, van Beek TA, Venskutonis RP, Linssen JPH, van Veldhuizen A, de Groot Æ. Identification of radical scavengers in sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata). J Agric Food Chem. 2002; 50(10):2914‑2919.

Khedidja B, Brahim L, Rabia B, Abdelkader H, Ameur Z, Abdelaziz B, Mabrouk S, Batoul BAS. Study of the antioxidant and bacterial activity of the flavonic glycosides existing in the plant “Cynodon Dactylon (L) Pers” by the free radical DPPH and the reduction of iron. (Preprint from Research Square, 04 Jan 2023). https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-2414186/v1.

Bouchmaa N, Mrid RB, Kabach I, Zouaoui Z, Karrouchi K, Chtibi H, et al. Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima: A Valuable Food with High Added Health Benefits. Appl Sci. 2022; 12(4):1866.

Herraiz-Peñalver D, Cases MÁ, Varela F, Navarrete P, Sánchez-Vioque R, Usano-Alemany J. Chemical characterization of Lavandula latifolia Medik. essential oil from Spanish wild populations. Biochem System Ecol. 2013; 46:59‑68.

Gholami‐Ahangaran M, Ahmadi‐Dastgerdi A, Azizi S, Basiratpour A, Zokaei M, Derakhshan M. Thymol and carvacrol supplementation in poultry health and performance. Vet Med Sci. 2022; 8(1):267‑288.

Pluhár Z, Szabó D, Sárosi S. Effects of different factors influencing the essential oil properties of Thymus vulgaris L. Plant Sci. 2016; 3:312.

Figueiredo AC, Barroso JG, Pedro LG, Scheffer JJC. Factors affecting secondary metabolite production in plants: volatile components and essential oils. Flav Fragr J. 2008; 23(4):213‑226.

Nostro A and Papalia T. Antimicrobial activity of carvacrol: current progress and future prospectives. Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery. 2012; 7(1):28‑35.

Mehmood T, Shafique S, Tabassam Q, Afzal M, Ahmad S. Variation in antioxidant attributes, individual phenolic acids composition and biological activities of Thymus vulgaris: effects of extraction solvents. Int J Biosci. 2015; 6(11):73‑86.

Abdul Qadir M, Shahzadi SK, Bashir A, Munir A, Shahzad S. Evaluation of phenolic compounds and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some common herbs. Int J Anal Chem. 2017; 2017:3475738.

Ghasemi Pirbalouti A, Hashemi M, Ghahfarokhi FT. Essential oil and chemical compositions of wild and cultivated Thymus daenensis Celak and Thymus vulgaris L. Ind Crops Prod. 2013; 48:43-48.

Benzaid C, Tichati L, Djeribi R, Rouabhia M. Evaluation of the chemical composition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Mentha piperita essential oil against microbial growth and biofilm formation. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2019; 22(2):335‑346.

Mollica F, Gelabert I, Amorati R. Synergic antioxidant effects of the essential oil component γ-terpinene on high-temperature oil oxidation. ACS Food Sci Technol. 2022; 2(1):180‑186.

Chizzola R, Michitsch H, Franz C. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes. J Agric Food Chem. 2008; 56(16):6897‑6904.

Marchese A, Arciola CR, Barbieri R, Silva AS, Nabavi SF, Tsetegho Sokeng AJ, Morteza I , Nématollah JJ , Ipek S , Maria D , Seyed MN. Update on monoterpenes as antimicrobial agents: A particular focus on p-cymene. Mater. 2017; 10(8):947.

Kulisic T, Radonic A, Milos M. Antioxidant properties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) essential oils. Ital J Food Sci. 2005; 17(3):315.

Stoilova I, Bail S, Buchbauer G, Krastanov A, Stoyanova A, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L. Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of an essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. from Germany. Nat Prod Commun. 2008; 3(7):1934578X0800300703.

Punya HN, Mehta N, Chatli MK, Wagh R V, Panwar H. In-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant Efficacy of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil. J Anim Res. 2019; 9(3):443‑449.

Chbel A, Elmakssoudi A, Rey-Méndez M, Barja JL, Filali OA, Soukri A, El Khalfi B. Comparative Study of Essential Oil Composition, Anti-bacterial And Antioxidant Activities of the Aerial Parts of Thymus vulgaris Grown in Morocco and France. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2022; 25(2):380‑392.

Aljabeili HS, Barakat H, Abdel-Rahman HA. Chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant activities of thyme essential oil (Thymus vulgaris). Food Nutrition Sci. 2018; 9(05):433.

Gedikoğlu A, Sökmen M, Çivit A. Evaluation of Thymus vulgaris and Thymbra spicata essential oils and plant extracts for chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. Food Sci Nutr. 2019; 7(5):1704‑1714.

Gavaric N, Mozina SS, Kladar N, Bozin B. Chemical profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of thyme and oregano essential oils, thymol and carvacrol and their possible synergism. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2015; 18(4):1013‑1021.

Lemos MF, Lemos MF, Pacheco HP, Guimarães AC, Fronza M, Endringer DC, Scherer R. Seasonal variation affects the composition and antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Thymus vulgaris. Ind Crops Prod. 2017; 95:543‑548.

Rosenblum JL, Irwin CL, Alpers DH. "Starch and glucose oligosaccharides protect salivary-type amylase activity at acid pH". The Am J Physiol. 1988; 254 (5 Pt 1):G775-80.

Teng H and Chen L. α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitors from seed oil: A review of liposoluble substance to treat diabetes. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 57(16):3438‑3448.

Ali A. Chemical composition, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anticancer activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris leaves. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants. 2021; 24(4):695‑703

Published

2024-02-01

How to Cite

Laftouhi, A., Slimani, M., Elrherabi, A., Bouhrim, M., Mahraz, M. A., Idrissi, A. M., … Taleb, M. (2024). Effect of Temperature and Water Stress on the Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Thymus vulgaris Essential Oil: http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i1.11. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(1), 5785–5793. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/3386

Most read articles by the same author(s)