Detection of <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Facilities from Two Nigerian University Campuses


  • Olubunmi M. Emurotu Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
  • Kalu J. Ndukwe Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Olumorin I. Owemidu Department of Physiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
  • Foluke R. Aminu Department of Microbiology, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria


wastewater facilities, wastewater, Antibiotic resistance genes, Urinary tract infection, Enterococcus faecalis


Enterococcus faecalis is a familiar urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogen of bacteria origin. This uropathogen is becoming more resistant to currently prescribed antimicrobials. Use of water from hostel drains and wastewater treatment plants (WTP) in the irrigation of vegetable farms favours horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and transfer of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pathogens from UTI to the gut microbiome. This work aimed at evaluating WTP and hostel drains from two campuses (University of Nigeria, Nsukka- UNN and Kogi State University, Anyigba- KSU) as reservoirs for this bacterial uropathogenic and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). E. faecalis was isolated, identified and confirmed using oxoid Chromogenic UTI agar and other biochemical tests. Twenty-one (21) multidrug-resistant isolates were screened for antibiotic-resistance genes. All the isolates were confirmed to be Enterococcus based on the presence of the 16SrRNAgene. More than 85 and 66 (%) of the isolates were confirmed to have Enterococcal surface protein D-ala-D-ala ligase (Ddl) and Cytolysin (ClyA) respectively. Indicating that the isolates were of the genus Enterococcus and E. faecalis species. The Van B and Van X genes were absent, 9.52%, 95.2% and 14.3% of the species having the Van A, Ant(2)-la and Acc(3)-lla genes respectively. All isolatesfrom UNN-WTP influent and effluent showed total resistance to ceftazidime (CAZ), penicillin G (P), erythromycin (E), meropenem (MEM) and cefotaxime (CTX) while isolates from both campuses' wastewater drains also resisted (100%) MEM, P and CAZ antibiotics, 100% and 91.68% resistance to E and 100% and 92.6% resistance to CTX respectively.


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How to Cite

Emurotu, O. M., Ndukwe, K. J., Owemidu, O. I., & Aminu, F. R. (2023). Detection of <i>Enterococcus faecalis</i> and Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Wastewater Facilities from Two Nigerian University Campuses: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(11), 5316–5326. Retrieved from