Anxiolytic and Anti-Depressant Activities of Ethanol Extract of <i>Mikania micrantha</i> Kunth Leaves in Mice


  • Nily Su’aida Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari, Banjarmasin 70123, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  • Hasniah Hasniah Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari, Banjarmasin 70123, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.
  • Lia Mardiana Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Islam Kalimantan Muhammad Arsyad Al-Banjari, Banjarmasin 70123, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.


anxiolytic, anti-depressant, micania micrantha kunth


Sembung rambat (Mikania micrantha Kunth) is a weed that grows easily and may hinder cultivation of plants. However, it also has medicinal benefits. M. micrantha contains various secondary compounds such as linalool, quercetin, α-terpinene, and terpinene-4-ol, which have anti-depressant effects. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted on the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activities of the leaves of this plant. This study determined the anxiolytic and anti-depressant activities of the ethanol extract of M.micrantha Kunth leaves. 48 male Swiss-Webster mice were assigned into four groups. All extracts, control, and Amitriptylilne groups were administered the same treatment. The forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out to examine anti-depressant activity, whereas the elevated plus maze test (EPM) was used to assess anxiolytic activity. The FST and TST data showed that immobility times were significantly reduced when M. micrantha Kunth was administered at 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.012, and p<0.033, respectively), while 250 mg/kg of M. micrantha Kunth increased the time spent in the open arms against the control group, although it was slightly lower than the amitriptyline group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the open-arm entries within the groups. M. micrantha Kunth leaves ethanol extract reduces the immobility time in FST and TST with increased entries on open arms and time spent in EPM.


Maj M, Stein DJ, Parker G, Zimmerman M, Fava GA, De Hert M, Demyttenaere K, McIntyre R, Widiger T, Wittchen H. The clinical characterization of the adult patient with depression aimed at personalization of management. World Psychiatry. 2020;19(3):269–93. Doi: 10.1002/wps.20771.

Chao L, Liu C, Sutthawongwadee S, Li Y, LvW, Chen W, Yu L, Zhou J, Guo A, Li Z, Guo S. Effects of probiotics on depressive or anxiety variables in healthy participants under stress conditions or with a depressive or anxiety diagnosis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Front Neurol. 2020; 11(421):1-10.

American Psychriatic Association (APA). Early Treatment of Anxiety Disorders Will Save Money in the Workplace.Mental Health Works, Third and Fourth Quarters. American Psychiatric Association. 2017; 7-9. Accessed 17 10, 2023.

Indonesia-National Adolescent Mental Health Survey (I-NAMHS). Laporan penelitian. Pusat Kesehatan Reproduksi, Fakultas Kedokteran, Kesehatan Masyarakat dan Keperawatan. Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. 2022; 44. Accessed 11 06, 2023.

McIntyre RS, Filteau MJ, Martin L, Patry S, Carvalho A, Cha DS, Cha D, Barakat M, Miguelez M. Treatment-resistant depression: Definitions, review of the evidence, and algorithmic approach. J. Affect. Disord. 2014; (156):1–7.

MA Rui, LI Shuang, WANG Zhen, GAO Juanjuan, XIE Aidi, HAN Haixia. Screening of effective anti-depressant part from Coreopsis tinctoria and study on its mechanism / 中国药房. China Pharmacy. 2022;12:1177–82.

Bahramsoltani R, Farzaei MH, Farahani MS, Rahimi R. Phytochemical constituents as future anti-depressants: A comprehensive review. Rev Neurosci. 2015; 26(6): 699–719.

Tian YE, Mengtao XU, Jingpeng FANG, Qinxuan WU, Xiaoyan ZOU, Fangqin YAN, et al. Anti-depressant-like active ingredients and their related mechanisms of functional foods or medicine and food homologous products. Digit Chin Med. 2023; 6(1): 9–27. Doi: 10.1016/j.dcmed.2023.02.001.

Edeoga HO, Okwu DE, Mbaebie BO. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol. 2005;4(7):685–8.

Sofowora LA. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and traditional medicine in Africa. 2nd Edition. Nigeria: Spectrum Books Limited; 1993;150–156.

Alves JSF, Dos Santos Silva AM, Da Silva RM, Tiago PRF, De Carvalho TG, De Araújo Júnior RF, et al. In vivo anti-depressant effect of passiflora edulis f. Flavicarpa into cationic nanoparticles: Improving bioactivity and safety. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12(4): 1-19. Doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics12040383

Institutional Animal Care and Use Program (IACUC). Tail Suspension Test. 2021: 1-3. Accessed 05 06, 2023.

Aduema W, Osim, EE, and Nwankwo, AA. Using the Elevated plus Maze Task in Assessing Anxiety and Fear in Swiss White Mice. J Complement Med Alt Healthcare J. 2018; 6(1): 1-6. Doi: 10.19080/JCMAH.2018.06.555678.

Abubakar, AR, Sani, IH, Malami, S, Yaro, AH. Anxiolytic and Sedative Activities of Methanol Extract of Solanum aethiopicum (Linn.) Fruits in Swiss Mice. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(2): 353-358.

Shehu A, Magaji MG, Yau J, Mahmud B, Ahmed A. Anti-depressant effect of methanol stem bark extract of Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae) in mice. Trop J Nat Prod Res.2018;2(2):87-91

Dev, UK, Hossain, MT, and Islam, MZ. Phytochemical Investigation, Antioxidant Activity and Anthelmintic Activity of Mikania Micrantha Leaves. World J. Pharm. Res. 2015; 4(5): 121-133.

Zhang MX, Ling B, Chen SY, Liang GW, Pang XF. Repellent and oviposition deterrent activities of the essential oil from Mikania micrantha and its compounds on plutella xylostella. Entomologia Sinica. 2004; 11(1): 37-45.

Ishak AH, Shafie NH, Esa, NM, Bahari H. Nutritional, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Mikania micrantha Kunth. PJSRR. 2016; 2(3): 123-132.

García-Ríos RI, Mora-Pérez A, Ramos-Molina AR, Soria-Fregozo C. Neuropharmacology of Secondary Metabolites from Plants with Anxiolytic and Anti-depressant Properties. Behavioral Pharmacology-Basic to Clinical Research. IntechOpen. 2020: 1-40. Doi:

Xu P, Wang K, Lu C, Dong L, Gao L, Yan M, Aibai S, Yang Y, Liu X. The Protective Effect of Lavender Essential Oil and Its Main Component Linalool against the Cognitive Deficits Induced by D-Galactose and Aluminum Trichloride in Mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017: 1-12. Doi: 10.1155/2017/7426538

Nicollier L, Thompson AC. Essential Oil and Terpenoids of Mikania micrantha. Phytochemistry. 1981; 20(11): 2587-2588.

Pérez-Amador H, Muñoz Ocotero V, Ibarra Balcazar R, García Jiménez F, Romulo Raggio F. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Mikania micrantha H.B.K. (Asteraceae) Estudios fitoquímico y farmacológico de Mikania micrantha. Phyton. 2010; 79:77-80.

Hossain R, Al-Khafaji K, Khan RA, Sarkar C, Shahazul Islam MD, Dey D, Jain, D, Faria, F, Akbor R, Atolani, O, Oliveira SMR, Siyadatpanah, A, Pereira MDL, Islam MT. Quercetin and/or ascorbic acid modulatory effect on phenobarbital-induced sleeping mice possibly through gabaa and gabab receptor interaction pathway. Pharmaceuticals. 2021; 14(8): 1-22. Doi: 10.3390/ph14080721

Chen S, Tang Y, Gao Y, Nie K, Wang H, Su H, Wang Z, Lu F, Huang W, Dong H. Anti-depressant Potential of Quercetin and its Glycoside Derivatives: A Comprehensive Review and Update. Front. Pharmacol. 2022. 13: 1-18 Doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.865376

Fonseca ECM, Ferreira LR, Figueiredo PLB, Maia C do SF, Setzer WN, Da Silva JKR. Anti-depressant Effects of Essential Oils: A Review of the Past Decade (2012–2022) and Molecular Docking Study of Their Major Chemical Components. Int. J. Mol. Sci. MDPI. 2023; 24(11): 1-23. Doi:

Fernandes C, File SE, File SE. The Influence of Open Arm Ledges and Maze Experience in the Elevated Plus-Maze. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996; 54(1): 31-40.

Pawlak CR, Karrenbauer BD, Schneider P, Ho YJ. The elevated plus-maze test: Differential psychopharmacology of anxiety-related behavior. Emot Rev. 2012; 4: 98–115.

Sangpayap R, Pramong R, Pujito PP, Thongsaard W. Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. Extract Protects Ethanol Addiction and Increases Dopamine Synthesis. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(1): 53-61.

Leonardo Rico J, Lorenz K, Camilo Hurtado-Parrado C, Vásquez-Sepúlveda J, Fonseca J, Cardona Á. Time in the central area of the elevated plus-maze correlates with impulsivity-related measures during an operant task. Universitas Psychologica. 2016; 15(5): 1-9.

Weiss SM, Wadsworth G, Fletcher A, Dourish CT. Utility of ethological analysis to overcome locomotor confounds in elevated maze models of anxiety. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1998; 23(2): 265-271. Doi: 10.1016/S0149-7634(98)00027-X

Hogg’ S. A Review of the Validity and Variability of the Elevated Plus-Maze as an Animal Model of Anxiety. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1996; 54(1): 21-30. Doi: 10.1016/0091-3057(95)02126-4.

Kõks S, Beljajev S, Koovit I, Abramov U, Bourin M, Vasar E. 8-OH-DPAT, but not deramciclane, antagonizes the anxiogenic-like action of paroxetine in an elevated plus-maze. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;153(3):365–72.

Cheng BH, Sheen LY, Chang ST. Evaluation of anxiolytic potency of essential oil and S-(+)-linalool from Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. linalool leaves in mice. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015;5(1):27–34.

Vissiennon C, Nieber K, Kelber O, Butterweck V. Route of administration determines the anxiolytic activity of the flavonols kaempferol, quercetin and myricetin - are they prodrugs? J Nutr Biochem. 2012;23(7):733–40.



How to Cite

Su’aida, N., Hasniah, H., & Mardiana, L. (2023). Anxiolytic and Anti-Depressant Activities of Ethanol Extract of <i>Mikania micrantha</i> Kunth Leaves in Mice: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(11), 5216–5220. Retrieved from