Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Stigma maydis Extract/Corn Silk Extract and Exploring its Efficacy Against Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats


  • Hammad Tahir Department of Nutrition, Lahore University of Biological and Applied Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Waqas Ahmed Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (UVAS), Lahore, Pakistan
  • Irfan Siddique Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health, Faisalabad, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Anees-Ur-Rehman Department of Nutrition, Lahore University of Biological and Applied Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Amna Tahir Department of Food and Nutrition, Minhaj University Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad S. Majeed Department of Human Diet and Nutrition, Islamia University Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • Usman Saeed Department of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, Imran Idrees Institute of Rehabilitation Sciences (IIIRS), Sialkot, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Y. Quddos Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
  • Rizwan Mubashir Tehsil Headquarter (THQ) Hospital Lalian, Chiniot, Pakistan


Ethanol extract, Diabetes Mellitus, Antioxidant activity, Hyperglycemia, Corn silk


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a major health issue characterized by hyperglycemia and is still on its upsurge. Corn silk extract (CSE) can be used as a remedy against hyperglycemia due to its rich antioxidant activity. This study was designed to assess the antioxidant potential of aqueous and ethanol corn silk extracts and to assess the efficacy of the selected extract against hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. For this purpose, aqueous and ethanol corn silk extracts were prepared and their antioxidant potential was assessed by performing TPC, DPPH, and ABTS assay. Based on the antioxidant tests results, ethanol corn silk extract was selected and given to rats. For the trial, 20 male rats with average weight 250 + 5 g were divided into three groups. Group 1 was non-diabetic, non-treated (control) while Group 2 and group 3 were diabetic, non-treated and diabetic, treated respectively. Group 2 and group 3 were injected 3 mL streptozotocin at the rate of 60 mg/kg with the final concentration of 5 mg/mL intraperitoneally. Group 3 received 1.5 mL ethanol corn silk extract while other two groups were given 1.5 mL water. Out of the three groups, Group 1 and group 2 had an inconsequential decline in mean blood glucose level at p < 0.05 while group 3 showed a significant decline in mean blood glucose level at p < 0.05. The polyphenols and antioxidants present in the corn silk extract impart functional as well as therapeutic properties to corn silk.


Joseph B, Jini D. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency: Asian Pac J. Trop Dis. 2013; 3(2):93-102. Doi:10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60052-3.

Shaw JE, Sicree RA, Zimmet PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 ;87(1):4-14.

Rayar A, Manivannan R. In-vitro alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity of umbelliferone and beta-ionone isolated from Coriandrum sativum Linn. World J. Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016 ;5(1):1280-9.

Quiroz Peñafiel J. Efficacy of the use of mobile phones in the metabolic control of type 2 diabetics. 2018;3(1):2-36

Adnan M, Aasim M. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adult population of Pakistan: A meta-analysis of prospective cross-sectional surveys. Ann Glob Health. 2020; 86(1).

Shera AS, Basit A, Fawwad A, Hakeem R, Ahmedani MY, Hydrie MZ, Khwaja IA. Pakistan National Diabetes Survey: prevalence of glucose intolerance and associated factors in the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Prim Care Diabetes. 2010; 4(2):79-83.

Hu FB, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willet WC. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345(11):790-7.

Wang T, Shankar K, Ronis MJ, Mehendale HM. Mechanisms and outcomes of drug- and toxicant-induced liver toxicity in diabetes. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2007; 37(5):413-59.

Wang X, Fang J, Zhu Y, Chen L, Ding F, Zhou R, Ge L, Wang F, Chen Q, Zhang Y, Zhao Q. Clinical characteristics of non-critically ill patients with novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) in a Fangcang Hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020; 26(8):1063-8.

Umpierrez GE, Isaacs SD, Bazargan N, You X, Thaler LM, Kitabchi AE. Hyperglycemia: an independent marker of in-hospital mortality in patients with undiagnosed diabetes. J. Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(3):978-82.

Aronson D. Hyperglycemia and the pathobiology of diabetic complications. Adv Cardiol. 2008; 45:1-16.

Hulkower RD, Pollack RM, Zonszein J. Understanding hypoglycemia in hospitalized patients. Diabetes Manag. 2014; 4(2):165-76.

Zhang Y, Wang JB, Wang L, Zhen LY, Zhu QQ, Chen XW. A study on hypoglycaemic health care function of Stigma maydis polysaccharides. Afr J. Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013; 10(5):401-7.

Ebrahimzadeh MA, Enayatifard R, Khalili M, Ghaffarloo M, Saeedi M, Yazdani Charati J. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants. Iran J. Pharm Res. 2014; 13(3):1041-7.

Dimpfel W, Kler A, Kriesl E, Lehnfeld R. Theogallin and L-theanine as active ingredients in decaffeinated green tea extract: II. Characterization in the freely moving rat by means of quantitative field potential analysis. J. Pharm Pharmacol. 2007; 59(10):1397-403.

Wan-Rosli W, Nurhanan A, Mohsin S, Farid C. Aqueous, alcoholic treated and proximate analysis of Maydis stigma (Zea mays hairs). Ann Microbiol. 2008; 8:66-72.

Bajaj S, Khan A. Antioxidants and diabetes: Indian J. Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;16(Suppl 2):S267-71. Doi:10.4103/2230-8210.104057.

da Silva S, Costa J, Pintado M, Ferreira D, Sarmento B. Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy A Review. J. Diabet Metabol 1: 111. Doi: 10.4172/2155-6156.100011 1.

Ruhe RC, McDonald RB. Use of antioxidant nutrients in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. J. Am Coll Nutr. 2001; 20(5 Suppl):381S-3S.

Kaur R, Arora S, Singh B. Antioxidant activity of the phenol rich fractions of leaves of Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss. Bioresour Technol. 2008; 99(16):7692-8.

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier M-E, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 1995; 28(1):25-30.

Antolovich M, Prenzler PD, Patsalides E, McDonald S, Robards K. Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst. 2002; 127(1):183-98.

Clark JD, Gebhart GF, Gonder JC, Keeling ME, Kohn DF. The 1996 guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Inst Lab Anim Res J. 1997; 38(1):41-8.

Okolie NP, Falodun A, Davids O. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of root extract of pepper fruit (Dennetia tripetala), and it's potential for the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Afr J. Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2014; 11(3):221-7.

Ogbonnia SO, Odimegwu JI, Enwuru VN. Evaluation of hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous ethanolic extracts of Treculia africana Decne and Bryophyllum pinnatum,/i> Lam. and their mixture on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Afr J. Biotechnol. 2008; 7(15):2535-2539

Tian J, Chen H, Chen S, Xing L, Wang Y, Wang J. Comparative studies on the constituents, antioxidant and anticancer activities of extracts from different varieties of corn silk. Food Funct. 2013; 4(10):1526-34.

Maksimović Z, Malenčić Đ, Kovačević N. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of Maydis stigma extracts. Bioresour Technol. 2005; 96(8):873-7.

Cha JH, Kim SR, Kang HJ, Kim MH, Ha AW, Kim WK. Corn silk extract improves cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mouse fed high-fat diets. Nutr Res Pract. 2016; 10(5):501-6.

Grover J, Rathi S, Vats V. Amelioration of experimental diabetic neuropathy and gastropathy in rats following oral administration of plant (Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens and Tinospora cordifolia) extracts. 2002.

Mehboob F, Tahir M. Effect of corn silk extract on acetaminophen induced renal damage in mice. Pak Arm Forces Med J. 2015; (3):339.

Zhao W, Yin Y, Yu Z, Liu J, Chen F. Comparison of anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from corn silk on normal and hyperglycemia rats. Int J. Biol Macromol. 2012; 50(4):1133-7.

Zhang Y, Wu L, Ma Z, Cheng J, Liu J. Anti-Diabetic, Anti-Oxidant and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Activities of Flavonoids from Corn Silk on STZ-Induced Diabetic Mice. Molecules. 2015; 21(1).

Wei BB, Chen ZX, Liu MY, Wei MJ. Development of a UPLC-MS/MS Method for Simultaneous Determination of Six Flavonoids in Rat Plasma after Administration of Maydis stigma Extract and Its Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetic Study in Normal and Diabetic Rats. Molecules. 2017; 22(8).

Odion EE, Falodun A, Adelusi SA. Total flavonoid, Total Phenolic and antioxidant potential of root bark extract and fractions of from Cola rostrata (Sterculiaceae) K. Schum. University of Benin. J. Sci Tech. 2013; 1(2):38-42.

Egharevba E, Chukwuemeke-Nwani P, Eboh U, Okoye E, Bolanle IO, Oseghale IO, Imieje VO, Erharuyi O, Falodun A. Evaluation of the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potentials of the leaf extracts of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae). Trop J. Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(5):170-4



How to Cite

Tahir, H., Ahmed, W., Siddique, I., Anees-Ur-Rehman, M., Tahir, A., Majeed, M. S., … Mubashir, R. (2023). Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Stigma maydis Extract/Corn Silk Extract and Exploring its Efficacy Against Hyperglycemia in Diabetic Rats: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(11), 5040–5045. Retrieved from