Exploring Mechanisms of Tumorigenesis and Plant-Based Therapies: A Comprehensive Review of Cancer Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies

http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i11.2

Authors

  • Abraham E. Ubhenin Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
  • Joshua O. Ikebuiro Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Wageningen University, Netherlands
  • Ramatu I. Idris Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
  • Fatima Anura Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Federal University Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
  • Osayemwenre Erharuyi Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria

Keywords:

Targeted therapies, Tumor growth, Antioxidant properties, Cancer treatment, Cancer prevention, Plant-based compounds

Abstract

Plant-based compounds have emerged as promising candidates for cancer prevention and treatment due to their ability to modulate metabolizing enzymes, target protein kinases, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cell cycle progression, Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). This review aim to investigate the mechanisms driving tumorigenesis, cancer formation, and to explore the potential of plant-derived compounds in cancer chemotherapy. The study employed a systematic approach in the review of relevant and current literature using online search engines. Plant-based compounds, including flavonoids, polyphenols, and glucosinolates, possess antioxidant properties that reduce DNA damage, induce Phase II enzyme activity, detoxify carcinogens, and inhibit Phase I enzymes. They also regulate protein kinase pathways, inhibit dysregulated lipid kinase signaling, and suppress tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Plant-based therapies targeting NF-κB and COX-2 demonstrate efficacy in suppressing NF-κB activation, modulating gene expression, inhibiting COX-2, and enhancing cancer cell sensitivity to conventional treatments. Plant-derived compounds effectively scavenge free radicals and modulate oxidative stress and cancer-associated signaling pathways. Preclinical studies validate their efficacy in reducing oxidative stress, inhibiting tumor growth, and suppressing metastasis. Recent advancements highlight the importance of genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications, tumor microenvironment, and cancer metabolism in tumorigenesis. Targeted therapies derived from plants, such as curcumin and Epigallocatechin gallate, show promise in targeting specific pathways. Plant-derived compounds also exhibit anti-angiogenic and immune-modulatory properties and can disrupt cancer metabolism. However, comprehensive clinical trials are necessary to evaluate their safety, efficacy, and integration into standard cancer treatment protocols, offering the potential to revolutionize cancer management.

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Published

2023-12-01

How to Cite

Ubhenin, A. E., Ikebuiro, J. O., Idris, R. I., Anura, F., & Erharuyi, O. (2023). Exploring Mechanisms of Tumorigenesis and Plant-Based Therapies: A Comprehensive Review of Cancer Pathogenesis and Treatment Strategies: http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i11.2. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(11), 5026–5033. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/2998

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