Identification of Nutritional Components of Different Varieties of Peanut Oil by Chromatographic Analysis
Keywords:Vitamins, Peanut oil, Fatty acids, Arachis hypogaea
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an energy-rich food containing a substantial amount of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals. In this study, Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were applied to identify various phytochemical and nutritional ingredients in the oil of ten peanut varieties (TL03, LDH09, CNC, L14, TL04, SENNA, LDH01, L27, L19, and LACDOBG) collected from different provinces in Vietnam. The chromatographic analysis identified twenty-five (25) secondary metabolites in the oil of the peanut varieties. Vitamins E and B1 contents ranged from 0.195 to 0.230 mg/mL and 0.003 to 0.005 µg/mL, respectively. Whereas, Vitamins A and B3 were absent in the peanut oil. There were high levels of omega 6, omega 9, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the oil of all the peanut varieties, while omega 3 was present in the oil of some peanut varieties but was not detected in the oil of CNC, L14, TL04, LACDOBG, L27, and SENNA. A total of 22 fatty acids were found in the oil of the peanut varieties, with the highest concentration being C18:1 c9 - Oleic acid (43.13 to 50.71 g/100 g), followed by C18:2 n-6 - Linoleic acid (26.01 to 33.63 g/100 g) and C16:0 - Palmitic acid (11.24 to 12.19 g/100 g). The present study demonstrated that peanut oil is a rich source of energy, vitamins, and essential fatty acids that benefit human health.
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