In-vitro Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of <i>Olax subscorpioidea</i> Oliv. (Olacaceae)

http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i8.35

Authors

  • Ayodeji A. Adelegan Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State.
  • Titilope M. Dokunmu Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State.
  • Emeka E. J. Iweala Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State.

Keywords:

cytotoxic, flavonoid, phenolic, antioxidant activity, ethyl acetate, Olax subscorpioidea

Abstract

The Olax subscorpioidea (Oliv) plant belongs to the Olacaceae family. It is a local remedy used in Nigeria to treat a wide range of conditions, including cancer. This study examined the Olax subscorpioidea fractions and ethanol leaf extract for phytochemical content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxic activity. Using the accepted methods, total tannin (TTC), total flavonoid (TFC), and total phenolic (TPC) were assessed. The antioxidant activities were determined through the DPPH, ABTS, and OH methods. The lethality assay for brine shrimp was used to determine the cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate fraction (OSEA) had the highest yields of phenolic (148.7 ± 2.41 mg GAE), flavonoid (145.5 ± 9.49 mg/QUE), tannin (35.8 ± 2.15 mg GAE) and total antioxidant capacity (94.7 ± 1.47 mg GAE) as well as the lowest IC50 values for DPPH (0.315 ± 0.004 mg/ml), ABTS (0.329 ± 0.0195 mg/ml), and hydroxyl (5.910 ± 0.0244 mg/ml). The high concentration of phenolic compounds in the ethyl acetate fraction of Olax subscorpioidea suggests its high scavenging potential compared with other fractions. All the fractions and ethanol extract of Olax subscorpioidea were cytotoxic to the brine shrimp at LC50 values less than 200 µg/ml. However, the hexane fraction is more cytotoxic at LC50 value of 39.254 µg/ml. The cytotoxic activity of
Olax subscorpioidea is associated with the presence of secondary compounds such as phenolic compounds, tannin, and other compounds present in the plant.

Author Biography

Ayodeji A. Adelegan, Department of Biochemistry, College of Science and Technology, Covenant University, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Sagamu Campus. Ogun State

References

Lobo V, Patil A, Phatak A, Chandra N. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacogn Rev. 2010; 4(8):118–26.

Sharifi-Rad M, Anil Kumar N V., Zucca P, Varoni EM, Dini L, Panzarini E, et al. Lifestyle, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants: Back and Forth in the Pathophysiology of Chronic Diseases. Front Physiol. 2020; 11:1–21.

Sen S, Chakraborty R, Sridhar C, Reddy YSR, De B. Free Radicals, Antioxidants, Diseases and Phytomedicines: Current Status and Future Prospect. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2010; 3(1):91–100.

Elsayed Azab A, A Adwas Almokhtar, Ibrahim Elsayed AS, A Adwas A, Ibrahim Elsayed Ata Sedik, Quwaydir FA. Oxidative stress and antioxidant mechanisms in human body. J. Appl. Biotechnol. bioeng. 2019; 6(1):43–7.

Kurutas EB. The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress: Current state. Nutr J. 2016; 15(71):1–22.

Sharma N. Free radicals, antioxidants and disease. Biol. Med. 2014; 6(3):1–6.

Muthoni Guchu B, Machocho AKO, Mwihia SK, Ngugi MP. In Vitro Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Extracts of Caesalpinia volkensii Harms., Vernonia lasiopus O. Hoffm., and Acacia hockii de Wild. Evid. Based Complementary Altern. Med. 2020; 2020:1–10.

Nićiforović N, Mihailović V, Mašković P, Solujić S, Stojković A, Muratspahić DP. Antioxidant activity of selected plant species; potential new sources of natural antioxidants. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2010; 48(11):3125–30.

Abdullah MZ, Mohd Ali J, Abolmaesoomi M, AbdulRahman PS, Hashim OH. Anti-proliferative, in vitro antioxidant, and cellular antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts from Polygonum minus Huds: Effects of solvent polarity. Int J Food Prop. 2017; 20:S846–862.

Sreeramulu D, Reddy CVK, Chauhan A, Balakrishna N, Raghunath M. Natural antioxidant activity of commonly consumed plant foods in India: Effect of domestic processing. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2013; 2013:1–12.

TO, Omolola AY. Citation: Efficacy of Nigerian MedicinalPlant (Olax Subscorpioidea. Oliv.) Root Extract Against Surgical Wound Isolates. Am J Micro and Bioche. 2019; 2(1):001–11.

Ahmad MH, Jatau AI, Alshargi OY, Julde SM, Mohammed M, Muhammad S, et al. Ethnopharmacological uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv (Olacaceae): a review. Futur J Pharm Sci. 2021; 7(1).

Adeoluwa OA, Aderibigbe AO, Olonode ET. Antinociceptive property of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv (Olacaceae) extract in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 156:353–357.

Oladipupo AR, Alaribe CS, Ariyo IA, Coker HAB, Ogunlaja AS. Cytotoxic, anti-mitotic and cytogenetic effects of the leaves and stems of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. (Olacaceae) against Artemia salina nauplii and Allium cepa meristematic cells. Maced. pharm. bull. 2019; 65(01):3–10.

Akinpelu DA, Alayande KA, Aiyegoro OA, Akinpelu OF, Okoh AI. Probable mechanisms of biocidal action of Cocos nucifera Husk extract and fractions on bacteria isolates. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015; 15(116):1–9.

Hatami T, Ahmad Emami S, Shahram Miraghaee S, Mojarrab M. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Activities of Different Extracts and Fractions from the Aerial Parts of Artemisia biennis Willd. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014; 13(2):551–8.

Miliauskas G, Venskutonis PR, Van Beek TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem. 2004; 85(2):231–7.

Oyebisi JO, Iyekowa O, Oviawe AP. Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Acalypha wilkesiana Hoffmanni (Green Acalypha). Trends Sci Technol. J. 2021; 6(3):686–8.

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: Specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem. 1999; 269(2):337–41.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, RiceEvans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved abts radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med. 1999; 26(9/10):1231–7.

Chandra Shekhar T, Anju G. Antioxidant Activity by DPPH Radical Scavenging Method of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Leaves. American J of Ethno. 2014; 1(4):244–9.

Halliwell B. Antioxidant Characterization Methodology and Mechanism. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995; 49(10):1341–8.

Sulaimon LA, Ola-Mudathir FK, Abdullahi BA, Mukhtar AI, Obuotor EM. A Comparative Study on Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potentials of Methanol Extract of Jatropha curcas Seeds and Leaves. J. drug deliv. ther. 2021; 11(6-S):43–8.

Do QD, Angkawijaya AE, Tran-Nguyen PL, Huynh LH, Soetaredjo FE, Ismadji S, et al. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica. J Food Drug Anal. 2014; 22(3):296–302.

Aryal S, Baniya MK, Danekhu K, Kunwar P, Gurung R, Koirala N. Total Phenolic content, Flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of wild vegetables from western Nepal. Plants. 2019; 8(4):96–108.

Hazarika N, Hussain A. Phenolics content and Antioxidant activity of Crude Extract of Oldenlandia corymbosa and Bryophyllum pinnatum. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2012; 3(2):297–303.

Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012; 12:221–33.

Ayoola G, Adeoye W, Olowu T, Adepoju-Bello A, Usman A, Johnson O. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and hypoglycaemic activities of the ethanol root extract of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv (Olacaceae). West Afr. J. Pharm. 2018;29(1):121–9.

Topçu G, Ay M, Bilici A, Sarikürkcü C, Öztürk M, Ulubelen A. A new flavone from antioxidant extracts of Pistacia terebinthus. Food Chem. 2007; 103(3):816–22.

Kim JS, Lee JH. Correlation between solid content and antioxidant activities in Umbelliferae salad plants. Prev Nutr Food Sci. 2020; 25(1):84–92.

Kazeem MI, Ayeleso AO, Mukwevho E. Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. leaf alleviates postprandial hyperglycaemia by inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. Int. J. Pharmacol. 2015; 11(5):484–9.

Egharevba E, Chukwuemeke-Nwani P, Eboh U, Okoye E, Bolanle IO, Oseghale IO, et al. Evaluation of the antioxidant and hypoglycaemic potentials of the leaf extracts of Stachytarphyta jamaicensis (Verbenaceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2019; 3(5):170–4.

Pithayanukul P, Nithitanakool S, Bavovada R. Phytochemical Qualitative Analysis and Total Tannin Content in the Aqueous Extract of Areca catechu Nut. Mol. 2009; 14(12):4987–5000.

Tong Z, He W, Fan X, Guo A. Biological Function of Plant Tannin and Its Application in Animal Health. Front Vet Sci. 2022; 8:1–7.

Gbadamosi IT, Raji LA, Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale TO. Hypolipidemic effects of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. root extract in experimental rat model. Afr J Biomed Res. 2017;20:293–299.

Maswada HF. Assessment of total antioxidant capacity and antiradical scavenging activity of three Egyptian wild plants. J. Med Sci. 2013; 13(7):546–54.

Awika JM, Rooney LW, Wu X, Prior RL, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Screening Methods to Measure Antioxidant Activity of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and Sorghum Products. J Agric Food Chem. 2003; 51(23):6657–62.

Rahman MM, Islam MB, Biswas M, Khurshid Alam AHM. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of different parts of Tabebuia pallida growing in Bangladesh. BMC Res Notes. 2015; 8:621–30.

Hasan SMR, Hossain MM, Akter R, Jamila M, Hoque Mazumder E, Rahman S. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of some Bangladeshi medicinal plants. J. Med. Plant Res. 2009; 3(11):875–9.

Aurand LW, Boone NH, Giddings GG. Superoxide and Singlet Oxygen in Milk Lipid Peroxidation. J Dairy Sci. 1977; 60(3):363–9.

Moshi MJ, Innocent E, Magadula JJ, Otieno DF, Weisheit A, Mbabazi PK, et al. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as traditional medicines in Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2010; 12(1):1–6.

Khan N, Khan I, Azam S, Ahmad F, Khan HA, Shah A, et al. Potential cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of Pinus wallichiana, Daphne oleiodes and Bidens chinensis. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021; 28(8):4793–4799

Published

2023-08-31

How to Cite

Adelegan, A. A., Dokunmu, T. M., & Iweala, E. E. J. (2023). In-vitro Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract and Fractions of <i>Olax subscorpioidea</i> Oliv. (Olacaceae): http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i8.35. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(8), 3806–3812. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/2458

Most read articles by the same author(s)