GC-MS Profiling, Antimicrobial Activity of Annona squamosa: An In-silico and Invitro Approach



  • Sasmita Dash School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Jatni, India-751050
  • Nityananda Sahoo School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Jatni, India-751050
  • Gurudutta Pattnaik School of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Centurion University of Technology and Management, Jatni, India-751050
  • Chandan Das School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India-751030
  • Sovan Pattanaik School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India-751030
  • Kausik Bhar Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly, West Bengal - 712102
  • Biswakanth Kar School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha O Anusandhan Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, India-751030


in silico molecular docking, in vitro antimicrobial, GC-MS, Annona squamosa L


Annona squamosa Linn. (Annonaceae) is a perennial plant that possesses anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-tumor, analgesic, and antimicrobial activity. The current study was designed to explore the phytochemicals using GC-MS analysis and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity followed by in-silico molecular docking study. The leaf powder of A. squamosa was successively extracted with n-hexane and methanol. The n-hexane fraction was subjected to GC-MS analysis. The extract was evaluated for antimicrobial activity to determine the zone of inhibition by disc diffusion method at concentrations of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/ml. The minimum inhibitory
concentration was performed at 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, 3.12 and 1.56 mg/ml concentration, against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-25923, Staphylococcus aureus ML-267, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29737, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC-29157, Bacillus subtilis-6633), and gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli PBR-332, Escherichia coli JM-109, Klebsiella pneumoniae PB-12) using streptomycin (1 mg/ml) as standard. Insilico docking was carried out with AUTO-DOCK Tool 1.5.6 using Discovery Studio 3.5. The GC-MS study revealed 13 compounds, the major compounds were 16-hentriacontanone (41.95%); [(1R,2S,6S,7S,8S)-8-Isopropyl-1-methyl-3-methylene-tricyclo-[,7]-decane] (15.91%) and caryophyllene (12.07%). The better zone of inhibition was found at a concentration of 50  mg/mL against all organisms whereas the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration was detected at 6.25mg/mL. The docking results revealed through Auto-Dock tool, a highest docking score of -5.2 each obtained from both the compounds caryophyllene and [(1R,2S,6S,7S,8S)-8-Isopropyl-1-methyl-3-methylenetricyclo-[,7]-decane], which was compared to the that of standard trimethoprim as reported previously. The antimicrobial potential of A. squamosa leaf might be attributed to the synergistic influence of bioactive components identified from GC-MS analysis. 


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How to Cite

Dash, S., Sahoo, N., Pattnaik, G., Das, C., Pattanaik, S., Bhar, K., & Kar, B. (2023). GC-MS Profiling, Antimicrobial Activity of Annona squamosa: An In-silico and Invitro Approach: http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i8.19. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(8), 3691–3700. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/2406