Medicinal Plants of Moulay Yaâcoub Province in Morocco: An Ethnobotanical and Biodiversity Survey


  • Adil M. Mahraz Laboratory of Engineering, Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment (LIEME), Faculty of Scienc, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, 30003 Morocco.
  • Chihbi. Elhachmia Laboratory of Engineering, Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment (LIEME), Faculty of Scienc, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, 30003 Morocco.
  • Rais Zakia Laboratory of Engineering, Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment (LIEME), Faculty of Scienc, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, 30003 Morocco.
  • Mustapha Taleb Laboratory of Engineering, Electrochemistry, Modeling and Environment (LIEME), Faculty of Scienc, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez, 30003 Morocco.


Phytotherapy, Plants, Moulay Yaâcoub, Morocco, Medicinal plants


Currently, many medicinal plants continue to be utilized for the treatment and prevention of diseases. Numerous studies conducted in Morocco indicate that aromatic and medicinal plants (MAPs) have been used for centuries to cure various ailments. The distribution of therapeutic herbs through herbal markets plays a crucial role in preserving cultural heritage. this study was conducted among residents of the Moulay Yaâcoub province with the aim of documenting ethnobotanical knowledge and identifying different medicinal and aromatic plants used in traditional herbal medicine by this community. To identify a diverse range of medicinal and aromatic plants characteristic of the target area, open-ended interviews were conducted with locals using semi-structured questionnaires in the form of ethnobotanical surveys. Ethnobotanical indices, including relative frequency of citations, use value, relative importance, and informant consensus factor, were employed to quantify the use and cultural significance of medicinal and aromatic plants in the province of Moulay Yaâcoub. The data were analyzed using different statistical parameters. According to the research results; the population of the Moulay Yaakoub province utilizes 93 species of vascular plants from 41 botanical families. The most prevalent
families are Lamiaceae (17.20%), Asteraceae (8.60%), Apiaceae (7.53%), Brassicaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Zingiberaceae, each accounting for 4.30% of the species mentioned. This ethnobotanical study conducted in the Moulay Yaâcoub province allows for the selection of various medicinal and aromatic plants used in traditional phytotherapy by the local population. Consequently, further research is needed, the main focus is on isolating and identifying particular bioactive compounds found in plant extracts.


Gou Y, Li Z, Fan R, Qiu Z, Wang L, Wang C, Wang. Ethno botanical survey of plants traditionally used against hematophagous invertebrates by ethnic groups in the mountainous area of Xishuangbanna; Southwest China. Plant Divers.2020; 42:415-426.

Abdullah A. Trends and challenges of traditional medicine in Africa. Afr J Tradit. 2011;8: 115–123.

Who Guidelines on Safety Monitoring of Herbal Medicines in Pharmacovigilance Systems.Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. 2004.

Chelghoum M, Khitri W, Bouzid S, Lakermi A. New trends in the use of medicinal plants by Algerian diabetic patients, considerations of herb-drug interactions. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2021; 274: 113-118.

Ncubea S, Ndagurwaa. G, Mundya P, Sibandac S, Dlodlod M. Ethno botanical knowledge and use-value of Harpagophytum (Devil’s claw) in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe; S. Afr. J. Bot. 2022; 144: 134-144.

Palabas Uzun S, Koca C. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets of Kahramanmaraş; Plant Divers.2020; 42:443-454.

Mahwasane S, Middleton L, Boaduo N. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the traditional healers of the Lwamondo area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. S. Afr. J. Bot. 2013; 88: 69-75.

Chaachouay N, Benkhnigue O, Zidane L. Ethnobotanical Study Aimed at Investigating the Use of Medicinal Plants to Treat Nervous System Diseases in the Rif of Morocco. J. Chiropr. Med. 2020; 19: 70-81.

Fakchich J, Elachouri M. An overview on ethnobotanicopharmacological studies carried out in Morocco, from 1991 to 2015: Systematic review (part 1). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2021; 267: 113- 200.

Jeddi M, Benziane Z, Ouaritini, Fikri-Benbrahim K. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in northern Morocco (Taounate) case of Mernissa. Ethnobot. Res. Appl.2021; 21: 1-23.

Toneu I, Martin G, Ouhammou A, Puri R, Hawkins j. An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the high atlas, Morocco. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2016; 188: 96-110.

Najem M, Harouak H, bijbijen J, Nassiri L.Oral disorders and ethnobotanical treatments: A field study in the central Middle Atlas (Morocco). Heliyon. 2020; 6:1-11.

Tardío J, Santayana M.Cultural importance indices: a comparative analysis based on the useful wild plants of southern Cantabria (northern Spain), Econ. Bot. 2008; 62: 24-39.

Ahmad M, Zafar M, Shahzadi N, Yaseen G, Murphey M, Sultana S. Ethnobotanical importance of medicinal plants traded in herbal markets of Rawalpindi-Pakistan. J. Herb. Med. 2017; 11 :78-89

Idm’hand E, Msanda F, Cherif K. Ethnobotanical study and biodiversity of medicinal plants used in the Tarfaya Province, Morocco. Acta Ecol. Sin. 2020; 40:134–144.

Upadhyay B, Singh K, Kumar U.Ethno-veterinary uses and informants consensus factor of medicinal plants of Sariska region, Rajasthan India. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2011; 133: 14–25.

Blanco J, Carrière S. Sharing local ecological knowledge as a human adaptation strategy to arid environments evidence from an ethnobotany survey in Morocco. J. Arid Environ. 2016; 127: 30-43.

Miara M, Bendif H, Aït Hammou.M, Teixidor I.Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018; 219: 248-256.

Ghorbani A, Esmaeilizadeh M. Pharmacological properties of Salvia officinalis and its components. J. Tradit. Complement. Med. 2017;5: 433-440.

Djamel M, Bendif H, Ouabeda.A, Rebbas K, Ait hammou M, Amirat M, Greene A, Teixidor I. Ethnoveterinary remedies used in the Algerian steppe: Exploring the relationship with traditional human herbal medicine. J. Ethnopharmacol .2019; 244:112-164.

Chaachouay N, Benkhnigue O, Fadli M, El Ibaoui H, Zidane L. Ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies of medicinal and aromatic plants used in the treatment of metabolic diseases in the Moroccan Rif. Heliyon. 2019; 5: 21-91.

Bencheikh N, Elbouzidi A, Kharchoufa L, Ouassou H, Merrouni I, Mechchate H, Es-safi I, Hano C, Addi M, Bouhrim M, Eto B, Elachouri M. Inventory of Medicinal Plants Used Traditionally to Manage Kidney Diseases in North-Eastern Morocco. Ethnobotanical Fieldwork and Pharmacological Evidence. Plants. 2021; 5: 21-91.

Abubakar R, Haque M. Preparation of Medicinal Plants: Basic Extraction and Fractionation Procedures for Experimental Purposes. j. pharm. Bioallied. Sci. 2020; 2: 1-10.

El-Ghazouani F, El-Ouahmani N, Teixidor-Toneu I, Yacoubi B, Zekhnini A. A survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by women and herbalists from the city of Agadir, southwest of Morocco. Eur. J. Integr. Med. 2021; 42: 10-12.

Lahouiti K, El Ouali A, Maniar S, Bekhti K. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Moulay Yacoub province, centre Morocco: Effect of ecological factors. Afr. j. environ. Sci. technol .2013; 7: 1028-1036.

Lahouiti K, Bekhti K, Fadil M, El Ouali A. Entomological investigations in moulay Yaacoub, leishmaniasis focus in the center of Morocco. Asian J. 2016; 9: 340-5.

El Khomsi M, Dandani Y, Chaachouay N, Hmouni D. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for medicinal, cosmetic, and food purposes in the region of Moulay Yacoub, Northeast of Morocco. J. Pharm. Pharmacogn. Res. 2022; 10: 13-29.

Panyadee P, Wangpakapattanawong P, Inta A, Balslev H. Very High Food Plant Diversity among Ethnic Groups in Northern Thailand. Diversity .2023; 15:1-18.

Torres C, Rebolledo F, Aguirre J, Ramirez A, Chávez .M, Aguillón D, Camacho L, Ramirez N, Hernández S, AguilarC. Medicinal plants used by rural communities in the arid zone of Viesca and Parras Coahuila in northeastern Mexico. Saudi pharm j. 2023; 1 :21-28.

Kareti R, Haran H, Rajpoot V. Ethnomedicinal plant diversity among tribal communities of Anuppur district, Madhya Pradesh, Central India. J. Herbs Spices Med. 2023; 6: 1-23.

Ali Shah I,Burni T, Badshah L, Ul Uza N. Indigenous knowledge and conservation status of wild plants collected from Garyaum, NorthWaziristan, Pakistan. Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 2023; 25:1-17

Flores A, Cuevas R, Olvera M. Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Edible Plants amongst Children from Two Rural Communities in Western Mexico. Hum. Ecol .2023;51: 397–407.

Eichert T, Fernandez V. Uptake and release of elements by leaves and other aerial plant parts. Marschner's Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants. 2023; 6:105-129.

Tamang a S, Singh a. A, Bussmann R, Shukla V, Nautiyal M. Ethno-medicinal plants of tribal people: A case study in Pakyong subdivision of East Sikkim, India. Acta Ecol. Sin. 2023;43 :34-46.

Tchetan E, Pascal A, Dehouegnon T, Bertrand E, Josette F, Marcel F, Sylvie A. Ethnoveterinary knowledge of sheep and goat farmers in Benin (West Africa): effect of socioeconomic and environmental factors. Helion. 2021; 7:1-14.

Ministry of Territorial Planning, Urbanism, Housing, and Environment of Morocco, Report on the State of the Environment of Morocco, National Environmental Observatory of Morocco, Rabat, Morocco (2001)

Aafi A, El Abid A. Diversité et valorisation des principales plantes aromatiques et médicinales (PAM) de l’écosystemecédraie au Maroc. Acta Bot. Malacit..2005 ;30 :127-138.

Scherrera A, Mottib R, Caroline S. Traditional plant use in the areas of Monte Vesole and Ascea, Cilento National Park (Campania, Southern Italy). J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 97:129 – 143.

Eddouks M, Hebi M, Ajebli M, El Hidani A, Sulpice T, Burcelin R. Study of Antidiabetic Effect of Capparis spinosaL. And Calamintha officinalis Moench in Diabetic Mice. Phytothérapie.2017;16:211-219.

Lan Cao y, Li X, Zheng M. Capparis spinosa protects against oxidative stress in systemic sclerosis dermal fibroblasts. Arch. Dermatol. Res .2009; 5:349-55.

Boutabia L, Telaïlia S, Ménaa M. Thérapeutique traditionnelle utilisations de Marrubiumvulgaire L. par localpopulations dans leRégion de Haddada (SoukAhras, Algérie). Ethnobot. Res. Appl. 2020 ; 44 :1-11.

Lin J, Puckree T, Mvelase P. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of some medicinal plants used by Zulu traditional healers. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79: 53–56.

Njoroge N, Bussmann W. Traditional management of ear, nose and throat (ENT) diseases in Central Kenya. J. ethnobiol. ethnomed. 2006; 2:2-54.

Srithi K, Balslev H., Wangpakapattanawong P, Srisanga P, Trisonthi C. Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2009; 123:335–342.

Vitalini S, Iriti M, Puricelli C,Ciuchi D, Segale A, Fico G. Traditional knowledge on medicinal and food plants used in Val San Giacomo (Sondrio, Italy)—an alpine ethnobotanical study. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2013; 145:517-529.



How to Cite

Mahraz, A. M., Elhachmia, C., Zakia, R., & Taleb, M. (2023). Medicinal Plants of Moulay Yaâcoub Province in Morocco: An Ethnobotanical and Biodiversity Survey: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(8), 3590–3601. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)