Mycotoxin Profile of ‘Tom Bran’, a Cereal-legume Weaning Food Preparation


  • Gogonte H. Amah Department of Biochemistry, Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Babafemi T. Ogunbiyi Department of Biochemistry, Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Adio J. Akamo Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Odutola Osilesi Department of Biochemistry, Benjamin S. Carson (Snr.) School of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
  • Stephen O. Fapohunda Department of Microbiology, School of Science and Technology, Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria


Cereals, Complementary Food, Legumes, Mycotoxins, Tom Bran


Higher levels of different mycotoxins than their respective tolerable limits exist in infant foods with concomitant far reaching physiological implications. This study aimed to measure the levels of commonly occurring mycotoxins in Tom Bran (a cereal-legume eaning food) and its composite grains (groundnut, soybean, millet, guinea corn and yellow corn) against regulatory standards. Samples of Tom Bran and their respective composite grains were subjected to mycotoxin analysis using LC-MS/MS following initial louroacylation derivatization. The result obtained showed that the levels of aflatoxins (Af) B1, B2, G1 and G2; fumonisins (Fum) B1, B2 and B3; ochratoxin (OTA) B; deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) in Tom Bran were all within the respective safe limits set for infant population by Codex Alimentarius Commission and the United States Department of Agriculture. The levels of ZEA in all the sampled composite foodstuffs investigated, save some groundnut samples, were within regulatory limit (<10 µg/kg), just like those of Fum B1, B2 and B3 (< 50 µg/kg each); DON (<50 µg/kg) and OTA B (<0.5 µg/kg). Af B1 in groundnut samples investigated were espectively above the allowable limit of 2.0 µg/kg set for infant food, except in R1where Af G1 level in groundnut is safe (1.450µg/kg). The respective levels of Af B1, B2, G1 and G2 in ‘Tom Bran’, soybean, millet, guinea corn and yellow corn, but not groundnut, were all within permissible limits. The composite infant formula is therefore considered ‘safe’ for human consumption and as a weaning food for older infants and young children. 


Leslie JF. Alternative methods for the control of mycotoxins. Manhattan: Department of Plant Pathology, Kansas State University; 2014; 3-24p.

Dellafiora L and Dall’Asta C. Forthcoming challenges in mycotoxins toxicology research for safer food - a need for multi-omics approach. Toxins. 2017; 9(1):18-31.

Freire FDCO and da Rocha MEB. Impact of Mycotoxins on Human Health. In: Mérillon JM., Ramawat K. (eds) Fungal Metabolites. Cham, Switzerland: Springer Nature Switzerland Ag; 2017. 239-261 p.

Liew WP and Mohd-Redzwan S. Mycotoxin: its impact on gut health and microbiota. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018; 8:60.

Sá SV, Monteiro C, Fernandes JO, Pinto E, Faria MA, Cunha SC. Emerging mycotoxins in infant and children foods: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2021; 61(8):1-5.

Bennett JW and Klich M. Mycotxins. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003; 16(3):497-516.

Adaku CC and Mally A. Mycotoxin occurrence, exposure and health implications in infants and young children in Sub-Saharan Africa: A review. Foods. 2020; 9(11):1585.

Arce-López B, Lizarraga E, de Mesa RL, González-Peñas E. Assessment of exposure to mycotoxins in Spanish children through the analysis of their levels in plasma samples. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):150.

Gong YY, Watson S, Routledge MN. Aflatoxin exposure and associated human health effects, a review of epidemiological studies. Food saf. 2016; 4(1):14-27.

Kortei NK, Annan T, Akonor PT, Richard SA, Annan HA, Kyei-Baffour V, Akuamoa F, Akpaloo PG, Esua-Amoafo P. The occurrence of aflatoxins and human health risk estimations in randomly obtained maize from some markets in Ghana. Sci Rep. 2021; 11(1):1-3.

Hernández M, Juan-García A, Moltó JC, Mañes J, Juan C. Evaluation of mycotoxins in infant breast milk and infant food, reviewing the literature data. Toxins 2021; 13(8):535.

Alshannaq A and Yu JH. Occurrence, toxicity, and analysis of major mycotoxins in food. Int J Environ Res Pub Health. 2017; 14(6):632.

Imade F, Ankwasa EM, Geng H, Ullah S, Ahmad T, Wang G, Zhang C, Dada O, Xing F, Zheng Y, Liu Y. Updates on food and feed mycotoxin contamination and safety in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. Mycol. 2021; 22:1-6.

Adekoya I, Obadina A, Adaku CC, DeBoevre M, Okoth S,De Saeger S, Njobeh P. Mycobiota and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in South African maize-based opaque beer. Int J Food Microbiol. 2018; 270:22-30.

De Santis B, Debegnach F, Gregori E, Russo S, Composite Cereal-Based Samples. Toxins 2017; 9(5):169-181.

Sun J, Li W, Zhang Y, Hu X, Wu L, Wang B. QuEChERS Purification Combined with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Simultaneous Quantification of 25 Mycotoxins in Cereals. Toxins. 2016; 8(12):375.

Kim D, Hong S, Kang JW, Cho SM, Lee KR, An TK, Lee C, Chung SH. Simultaneous Determination of MultiMycotoxins in Cereal Grains Collected from South Korea by LC/MS/MS. Toxins. 2017; 9(3):106.

Ojuri OT, Ezekiel CN, Sulyok M, Ezeokoli OT, Oyedele OA, Ayeni KI, Eskola MK, Šarkanj B, Hajšlová J, Adeleke RA, Nwangburuka CC. Assessing the mycotoxicological risk from consumption of complementary foods by infants and young children in Nigeria. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018; 121:37-50.

Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: Action Levels for Poisonous or Deleterious Substances in Human Food and Animal Feed. [Online]. 2000. [Cited 2021 Mar 26]. Available from

Bingham AK, Phillips TD, Bauer JE. Potential for dietary protection against the effects of aflatoxins in animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003; 222(5):591-596.

World Health Organization. Mycotoxins. [Online]. 2018. [Cited 2021 Oct 26]. Available from

Atanda O, Makun HA, Ogara I, Ogunbanwo FB. Fungal and Mycotoxin Contamination of Nigerian Foods and Feeds. In: Slavka K (Tech Ed) Mycotoxin and Food Safety in Developing Countries (1st ed.). Croatia: InTechSTePRi.2013; 83-98p.

Codex Alimentarius Commission on Contaminants in Food. Development of Maximum Levels for Mycotoxins in Spices and Possible Prioritization of Work. Rome: Codex Alimentarius Commission; 2016; 4-7p.

Stoev SD. Food safety and increasing hazard of mycotoxin occurrence in foods and feeds. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.2013; 53(9):887-901.

Cinar A and Onbaşı E. Mycotoxins: The hidden danger in foods. In: Sabuncuogla S (ed) Mycotoxins and Food Safety.London, United Kingdom: IntechOpen Ltd. 2019; 20:1-21.

Ojuri OT, Ezekiel CN, Eskola MK, Šarkanj B, Babalola AD, Sulyok M, Hajšlová J, Elliott CT, Krska R. Mycotoxin co-exposures in infants and young children consuming household-and industrially-processed complementary foods in Nigeria and risk management advice. Food Cont. 2019; 1(98):312-322.

Kamala A, Kimanya M, Lachat C, Jacxsens L, Haesaert G, Kolsteren P, Ortiz J, Tiisekwa B, De Meulenaer B. Risk of exposure to multiple mycotoxins from maize-based complementary foods in Tanzania. J Agric Food Chem. 2017; 65(33):7106-7114.

Kang’Ethe EK, Korhonen H, Marimba KA, Nduhiu G, Mungatu JK, Okoth SA, Joutsjoki V, Wamae LW, Shalo P. Management and mitigation of health risks associated with the occurrence of mycotoxins along the maize value chain in two counties in Kenya. Food Quality and Safety. 2017; 1(4):268-274.

Amah GH, Ehichioya ED, Ayodele OO, Adetona MO, Ananaba ED, Fakunle VO. Bioavailability of selected dietary elements in a locally formulated complementary food. IOSR J Appl Chem. 2016; 9(11):12-17.

Scudamore KA. Mycotoxins. In: Gilbert J, Şenyuva HZ. (eds.) Bioactive Compounds in Food. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2006; 130-151p.

Juck M. Aflatoxin Analysis in Infant Formula with Enhanced Matrix Removal—Lipid by LC/MS/MS: Application Note for Food Testing. Santa Clara: Agilant Technologies Inc. 2016; 1-10p.

Houng B. Technical Regulations on Mycotoxin and Heavy Metals MRLs in Foods. Washington: USDA Foreign Agricultural Services. 2013; 1-7p.

Habschied K, Kanižai Šarić G, Krstanović V, Mastanjević K. Mycotoxins—Biomonitoring and Human Exposure. Toxins. 2021; 13(2):113.

Mazumder PM and Sasmal D. Mycotoxins–Limits and Regulations. Anc Sci Life. 2001; 20(3):1-19.

Codex Alimentarius International Food Standards. general standard for contaminants and toxins in food and feed CXS 193-1995. Rome: Codex Alimentarius Commission; 2019; 10-45p.

Rashedi M, Ashjaazadeh MA, Sohrabi HR, Azizi H, Rahimi E. Determination of zearalenone contamination in wheat and rice in Chaharmahalva Bakhtyari, Iran. J Cell Anim Biol. 2012; 6(4):54-56.

Murashiki TC, Chidewe C, Benhura MA, Manema LR, Mvumi BM, Nyanga LK. Effectiveness of hermetic technologies in limiting aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 contamination of stored maize grain under smallholder conditions in Zimbabwe. World Mycotoxin J. 2018; 11(3):459-469.

Ng’ang’a J, Mutungi C, Imathiu S, Affognon H. Effect of triple-layer hermetic bagging on mould infection and aflatoxin contamination of maize during multi-month onfarm storage in Kenya. J Stored Prod Res. 2016; 69(5):119-128.

Walker S, Jaime R, Kagot V, Probst C. Comparative effects of hermetic and traditional storage devices on maize grain: Mycotoxin development, insect infestation and grain quality. J Stored Prod Res. 2018; 77(3):34-44.

Akello J, Ortega-Beltran A, Katati B, Atehnkeng J, Augusto J, Mwila CM, Mahuku G, Chikoye D, Bandyopadhyay R. Prevalence of aflatoxin-and fumonisin-producing fungi associated with cereal crops grown in Zimbabwe and their associated risks in a climate change scenario. Foods 2021; 10(2):287.

Ezekiel CN, Ayeni KI, Akinyemi MO, Sulyok M, Oyedele OA, Babalola DA, Ogara IM, Krska R. Dietary risk assessment and consumer awareness of mycotoxins among household consumers of cereals, nuts and legumes in northcentral Nigeria. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):635.

Amparo L, Rufino M, Maria JH, Antonio L, Misericordia J. Influence of the interactions among ecological variables in the characterization of zearalenone producing isolates of Fusarium spp. Appl Microbiol. 2004; 27(2):253-260.

Oyedele OA, Ezekiel CN, Sulyok M, Adetunji MC, Warth B, Atanda OO, Krska R. Mycotoxin risk assessment for consumers of groundnut in domestic markets in Nigeria. Int J Food Microbiol. 2017; 251:24-32.

European Commission. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union. 2006; 364(1881):5-24.

European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on contaminants in the food chain [CONTAM] related to ochratoxin A in food. EFSA J. 2006; 4(6):365.

Cappozzo J, Jackson L, Lee HJ, Zhou W, Al-Taher F, Zweigenbaum J, Ryu D. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in infant foods in the United States. J Food Prot. 2017; 80(2):251-256.

Temba BA, Darnell RE, Gichangi A, Lwezaura D, Pardey PG, Harvey JJ, Karanja J, Massomo S, Ota N, WainainaJM, Fletcher MT. The influence of weather on the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in harvested maize from Kenya and Tanzania. Foods 2021; 10(2):216.

Hathout AS and Aly SE. Biological detoxification of mycotoxins: a review. Ann Microbiol. 2014; 64:905-919.

Adeyeye SA. Fungal mycotoxins in foods: A review. Cogent Food & Agric. 2016; 2(1):1213127.

Herrera M, Bervis N, Carramiñana JJ, Juan T, Herrera A, Ariño A, Lorán S. Occurrence and exposure assessment of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in cereal-based baby foods for infants. Toxins. 2019; 11(3):150.

European Commission. Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs.Off J Eur Union.2006; 364(365-324).




How to Cite

H. Amah, G., T. Ogunbiyi, B., J. Akamo, A., Osilesi, O., & O. Fapohunda, S. (2022). Mycotoxin Profile of ‘Tom Bran’, a Cereal-legume Weaning Food Preparation: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(1), 55–61. Retrieved from