Quantification of Resistant starch, Non-Resistant Starch and Total Starch Content of Some Processed Foods Sold in Enugu Metropolis



  • Eucharia N. Nwosu Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Kingsley O. Omeje Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Emmanuel C. Ezugwu Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
  • Sabinus O. O. Eze


Tubers, Legumes, Cereals, processed food, Resistant starch


Resistant starch, which is produced by the interaction between starch, lipids and proteins, is an important part of diet due to its ability to escape digestion in the gut, thus reducing the blood glucose concentration. Resistant starch contents of some processed food products sold in Enugu Metropolis were quantified using Megazyme resistant starch kit (Megazyme Bray, Ireland). The processed foods were grouped into cereals (Oatmeal flours, basmati rice flours), Legumes (beans flour), Fruits (Unripe plantain flours) and Tubers (yam flours and potato starch flours). Mean values were determined with MegaCalc and data were expressed as percentage weight per weight. Among the processed food samples analyzed, plantain flour (82.314% Ayoola foods plantain flour, 82.757 % for naked amala plantain flour and 65.648% for deluxe plantain flour) contains the highest concentration of resistant starch. In descending order of resistant starch concentration is as follows; rice samples (lamis basmati rice, 43.427%, TBR basmati rice (39.268%). The resistant starch content of yam samples was 38.769% (Ayo ola poundo yam flour) and 28.354% for Ola ola yam flour respectively. The least resistant starch content was detected in beans sample; deluxe bean flour (~6.788%), Ayo ola bean flour (~3.481 %) and tasty pot bean flour (~4.345 %) and oat flour; lecker white oat 1.503%), health-wise oat meal (3.497%) and elkaris swallow oat (1.325%) respectively. Plantain and rice flours should be considered most for consumption, due to the high resistant starch content that confer many of health benefits.


Smith AM. The biosynthesis of starch granules. Biomacromole.2001; 2(2):335-341.

Ellis RP, Cochrane MP, Dale MFB, Duffus CM, Lynn A, Morrison IM, Prentice RDM, Swanston JS, Tiller SA. Starch production and industrial use. J. Sci. Food and Agric. 1998; 77(3): 289-311.

Kàczkowski J. Starch and other polysaccharidesmodification and applications-a review. Polish J Food and Nutr Sci. 2003; 12(1):3-12.

Brownlee IA, Gill S, Wilcox MD, Pearson JP, Chater PI. Starch digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract of humans. Starch‐Starke2017; 17:1-11.

Englyst HN, Kingman SM, Cummings JH. Classification and measurement of nutritionally important starch fractions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1992; 46(2):33–50.

Nugent AP. Health properties of resistant starch. Brit. Nutri. Found Bullet., 2005; 30:27–54.

Lunn J, Buttriss JL. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber. Nutr. Bullet. 2007; 32:21-64.

Dhital S, Katawal SB, Shrestha AK. Formation of resistant starch during processing and storage of instant noodles. Inter J. Food Prop. 2010; 13(3):454-463.

Köksel H, Basman A, Kahraman K, Ozturk S. Effect of acid modification and heat treatments on resistant starch formation and functional properties of corn starch. Inter J. Food Propert. 2007; 10(4):691-712.

Chung HJ, Liu Q, LeeL, Wei D. Relationship between the structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice starches with different amylose contents. Food Hydrocol. 2011; 25(5): 968-975.

Pereira BLB, Leonel M. Resistant starch in cassava products. Food Sci Tech. 2014; 34(2): 298-302.

Sofi SA, Ayoub A, JanA. Resistant starch as a functional ingredient-a review. Inter J Food Sci Nutri.2017; 2(6):195-199.

Van Kleef E, Van Trijp JCM, Van Den Borne JJGC, Zondervan C. Successful development of satiety enhancing food products: towards a multidisciplinary agenda of research challenges. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.2012; 52(7): 611-628.

Keenan MJ, Zhou J, MccutcheonKL, Raggio AM, Bateman HG, Todd E. Effects of resistant starch, a non-digestible fermentable fiber on reducing body fat. Obes.2006; 14:1523–1534.

Zafar TA, Martin B, Weaver CM. Resistant starches (RS2 and RS3) have variable effects on bone mineral status in rats. The Open Nutrit J.2009; 3:17-22.

Floros JD, Newsome R, Fisher W, Barbosa-Cánovas GV, Chen H, Dunne CP, Knabel SJ. Feeding the world today and tomorrow: The importance of food science and technology: an IFT scientific review. Compreh. Reviews Food Sci. Food Safety 2010; 9(5):572-599.

Weaver CM, Dwyer J, FulgoniVL, King JC, Leveille GA, MacDonald RS, SchnakenbergD. Processed foods: Contributions to nutrition. The Amer. J. Clin Nutrit.2014; 99 (6):1525-1542.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. 13th Edition, AOAC, Washington, D.C. 1980; 376-384.

FAO/WHO (Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization). Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation. WHO technical report series. 2002; 916-922.

Winham DM, Hutchins AM, Melde CL. Pinto bean, navy bean and black eye pea consumption do not significantly lower the glycemic response to a high glycemic index treatment in normoglycemic adults. Nutrit Res. 2007;27:535-541.

Chung HJ, Shin DH, Lim ST. In vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of chemically modified corn starches. Food Res Inter. 2008; 41:579-585.

Marquez–Gomez M, Galicia-GarciaT, Marquez-mendelez R, Ruiz-Gutierrez M, Quintero-Ramos A. A Spray-dried microencapsulation of orange essential oil using modified rice starch as a wall material. J Food Process Preserv. 2017; 18(3):2145-2660.

Garcia-Alonso A, Saura CF, Declour JA. Influence of botanical source and processing on formation of resistant starch type III. Cereal Chem 1998; 75:802-804.

Kaur B, Ariffin F, Bhat R, KarimAA. Progress in starch modification in the last decade. Food Hydrocoll. 2012; 26:398-404.

Okareh OT, Adeolu AT, Adeyogu OT. Proximate and mineral composition of plantain(Musa paradisiaca) wastes flour, a potential nutrients source in the formulation of animal feeds. Afri J Food Sci Tech. 2015; 6(2):53-57.

Zakpaa HD, Mak MEE, Adubofou J. Production and characterization of flour produced from the ripe “apem” plantain (Musa sapientum L. and Var. paradisiacal; French horn) grown in Ghana. J Agric Biotech Sustain Develop. 2010;(6): 92-99.

Adamu AS, Ojo IO, Oyetunde TG. Evaluation of nutritional values in ripe, unripe, boiled and roasted plantain (Musa paradisiaca) pulp and peel. InternJ. Basic and Appl. Sci. 2017; 4(1):9-12.

Oko AO, Famurewa AC, Nwaza JO. Proximate composition, mineral elements and starch characteristics: study of eight (8) unripe plantain cultivars in Nigeria. Brit. J Appl. Sci. Tech. 2015; 6(3):285-294.

Rasane P, Jha A, Kamar A, Sharma N. Reduction in phytic acid content and enhancement of antioxidant properties of nutricereals by processing for developing a fermented baby food. J Food Sci Tech.2015; 52(6):3219-3234.

Beloshapka AN, Buff PR, Fahey CG, Swanson KS. Compositional analysis of whole grains, processed grains, grain co-products, and other carbohydrate sources with applicability to pet animal nutrition. Foods2016; 5(23):1-16.

Aprianita A, PurwandariU, Watson B, Vasiljevic T. Physico-chemical properties of flours and starches from selected commercial tubers available in Australia. Inter Food Res. J. 2009; 16:507-520.

Escarpa A, Gonzalez MC, Morales MD, Saura-Calixto F. An approach to the influence of nutrients and other food constituents on resistant starch formation. Food Chem. 1997; 60 (4):527-532.

Juliano BO. Rice in human nutrition. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Los Banos, Laguna, Phillipines. Food and Nutri. 1993; 26:162-171.

Maclean JL, Dawe DC, Hardy B. and Hettel GP(Eds). Rice Almanac, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos Philippines, 2002; 165-182.

Sajilata MG, Singhal RS, Kulkarni PR. Resistant starch–a review. Compreh. Rev Food Sci Food Safe.2006; 5(1):1-17.

Ranawana DV, Henry CJK, Lightowler HJ and Wang D. Glycemic index of some commercially available rice and rice products in Great Britain. Inter. J. Food Sci. Nutri. 2009; Doi.org/10.1080/09637480802516191.



How to Cite

Nwosu, E. N., Omeje, K. O., Ezugwu, E. C., & Eze, S. O. O. (2023). Quantification of Resistant starch, Non-Resistant Starch and Total Starch Content of Some Processed Foods Sold in Enugu Metropolis: http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i4.21. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(4), 2796–2800. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/1890