Antioxidant and Ameliorative Effects of Basella alba L. On Letrozole-Induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Rats
Keywords:Histopathology, polycystic ovarian syndrome, Brine shrimp lethality assay, Antioxidant Assay
Basella alba L. (BA) is utilized in Nigeria to manage Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), according to an ethnobotanical study. However, this claim has not been supported by any scientific data. This study investigated the effect of the methanol leaf extract of the plant in alleviating polycystic ovary conditions in rats. The methanol extract of BA was subjected to a brine shrimp lethality assay. Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), and the DPPH assay were used to measure antioxidant activity. To induce PCOS in thirty female Wistar rats (180-200 g), letrozole (1 mg/kg) was used. For 15 days, BA leaf methanol extract (100 mg/kg body weight) and Clomiphene citrate (1 mg/kg body weight), a standard medication, were given. Microscopically, the ovaries underwent histopathological investigation. ELISA was used to assess luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol levels. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, and P < 0.05 was set as the threshold for Dunnett's Multiple Comparison Test. LC50 value for the extract was 17.29±0.15 μg/mL. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was the highest. When PCOS animals were given BA, the ovarian stroma was normal and the granular cells were leutinized. The level of estradiol increased but the level of LH was not significantly different between the BA-treated group (0.23±0.03 mIU/mL) and the untreated PCOS group (0.23±0.01 mIU/mL). Basella alba leaf displayed ameliorative effects on polycystic ovary conditions in rats. This support the use of this plant in the management of PCOS.
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