Assessment of Antioxidant and Polyphenol Profile of Chrysobalanus icaco from Southern Nigeria http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i4.19
Main Article Content
Due to the distinguished medicinal value of Chrysobalanus icaco, it was of great interest to conduct phytochemical and antioxidant investigations on it. In this study, the polyphenol profile and antioxidant activity of C. icaco methanol crude extract and fractions were investigated. The crude extract of C. icaco was subjected to fractionation using methanol, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol as solvents. 2, 2-diphenyl-1picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric ion reducing power (FRAP), ascorbate oxidase, total phenolic content, total flavonoids and polyphenol profile was determined using standard methods. A significant increase was observed in the DPPH radical scavenging activity, total flavonoids, total phenol, FRAP, ABTS, TAC and ascorbate oxidase of the crude extract when compared to methanol, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, n-butanol, and aqueous fractions. Polyphenols such as kaempferol, chlorogenic acid, catechin, quercetin, galic acid, pomolic acid, rutin, epicatechin, stigmasterol, sitosterol and caffeic acid were found in the different fractions. The total polyphenols content of different fractions of C icaco extract were as follows; methanol fraction > n-hexane fraction > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > aqueous fraction. The findings revealed that C icaco kernel could be used as a potent source of molecules with positive health attributes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Sianipar MP, Suwarso E, Rosidah R. Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Hexane Fraction from Carica papaya L. Male Flower. Asian J Pharm Clin Res.12018; 1: 81-83.
Ugwu EO, George BO, Omoike GO, Okpoghono J. Bioaccessibility of polyphenols and flavonoids in Ocimum africanum leaves extract. Uniport J Eng Sci Res. 2021; 6(1) 78-84.
Rasyid ZA, Farida A, Daud SH, Wiwin S, Wijaya KI, Tangke AE. Bioactivities of Forest Medicinal Plants on Kutai Ethnic (Indonesia) of Tapak Leman (Hippobroma longiflora (L) G. Don). GSC Bio Sci Pharma Res. 2020; 11: 91-98.
Ekakitie LI, Okpoghono J, Orororo CO, Ekakitie AO. Ameliorative prowess of bee honey in the tissues of rats administered aluminium nitrate. Scientific Afr. 2021; 12: e00782.
Okonta CI, Okpoghono J, George BO, Joseph O, Obiejogo J. Changes in lipid profile and antioxidant levels of rats fed cycas formulated diet and clove (Syzygium aromaticum) extract. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; (5):959-962.
Anigboro AA. Antioxidant effect of aqueous seed extract of Aframomum sceptrum (Kschum) on brain and kidney of malaria infested mice. Niger J Sci Environ. 2019; 14 (1):102-106.
Onakurhefe P, Achuba FI, George BO, Okpoghono J. Elaeis guineensis (Jacq) Leaf extracts effect on crude oilinduced genotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Scientific Afr.2020; 7: e00280.
Codonier-Franch P, Boix-Garcia L, Simo-Jorda R, CastilloVillaescusa CD, Maset-Maldonado J. Valls-Belles V. Is Obesity Associated with Oxidative Stress in Children. Int J Pediatric Obes. 2010; 5: 56-63.
Mahamat SA, Lahat N, Cyrille AN, Mady C, Mar DC. Phytochemical Screening, Total Phenolic and AntioxidantActivity of Numerous Extracts from Leaves and Bark of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. Food Sci Nutr 2021; 12: 544-556.
Kadiri, HE, Ekayoda O. The effects of a controlled food borne mediated exposure to cyanide and cadmium on antioxidant enzymes and some renal indices in rats. Sokoto J Med Lab Sci 4(2):108 - 117.
Asagba SO. Alteration in the activity of oxidative enzymes in the tissues of male wistar albino rats exposed to cadmium. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2010; 23(1):55–62.
Apiamu A, Asagba SO, Tonukari NJ. Role of Anthocleista vogelii in serum antioxidant defence system in cadmiuminduced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Beni Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci. 2019; 8 (1): 1-13
Asagba SO, Eriyamremu GE, Onyeneke EC, Suru M. Influence of a Nigerian-like diet on calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels in the plasma and bone ofcadmium exposed rats J Med Sci. 2006; 6(5):758–764.
Ekakitie LI, Orororo CO, Okpoghono J. Changes in haematological parameters of aluminium-exposed rats treated with natural bee honey. IOSR J Environl Sci Toxicol Food Technol. 2021; 15 (5):22-25.
George BO, Atalor B, Okpoghono J. Role of vitamin E, vitamin A and aqueous extract of Aframomum sceptrum in mice, infected with malaria parasites. Niger J Nutr Sci. 2019; 40 (1):113-117.
Kadiri HE. The modulatory effect of Chrysobalanus icaco seed on cadmium induced hepatoxicity and nephrotoxicity in rats. Niger J Pure Appl Sci. 2019; 32(2):3428-3435
Ursini F, Maiorino M, Morazzoni P, Roveri A, Pifferi G. A novel antioxidant (1dB 1031) affecting molecular mechanisms of cellular. Free Radic Biol Med. 1994;16:547-53.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Hosseinimehr SJ, Hamidinia A, Jafari M. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Feijoasallowiana fruits peel and leaves. Pharmacology 2008; 1:7-14.
Dewanto X, Wu K, Adom K, Liu RH. Thermal processingenhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasingtotal antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem.2002; 50: 3010–3014.
Benzie IF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239:70-76.
Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice-Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cationdecolorization assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 26 (9–10):1231-1237.
Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitationof antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phospho-molybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999; 269: 337–341.
Vines HM, Oberbacher MF. Response of oxidation and phosphorylation in Citrus mitochondria to arsenate. Nature 1965; 206:319-320.
Seal. T. Quantitative HPLC analysis of phenolic acids, flavonoids and ascorbic acid in four different solvent extracts of two wild edible leaves, Sonchus arvensis and Oenanthe linearis of North-Eastern region in India. J App Pharm Sci. 2016; 6(02): 157-166.
Yaws CL. Chemical Properties Handbook, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999; Pp. 567.
George BO, Okpoghono J. Antioxidant activity of water, ethanol and diethyl ether extracts of Monodora myristicaand Syzygium aromaticum. Direct Res J Public Health Environ Technol. 2017; 2 (4):30-35.
Omoike GO, George BO, Ugwu EO, Okpoghono J. Changes in the antioxidant properties of Ocimum africanum leaves aqueous extract from the southeastern region of Nigeria after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Int J Food Prop. 2022; 25(1): 2000-2018.
Mayasari D, Islami D, Oktariani E, Wulandari P. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Evaluations of Ipomoea batatas L. from Riau, Sumatera Island, Indonesia. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2023; 7(1):2157-2161.