Phytochemical and Nutrient Composition of Rice Husks http://.www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i2.24
Main Article Content
This study deals with the determination of possible phytocompounds, minerals, vitamins and nutritional constituents present in Rice husk (RH). Dried rice husk samples were collected from a local rice mill at Awgu Town in Enugu, South-East Nigeria. The proximate, phytochemical, vitamin and mineral composition of the ground sample were investigated using standard methods of analysis, while a Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) device was employed for the characterization of bioactive components of the sample. The proximate analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate (37.04%), crude protein (1.85%), moisture (7.93%), crude fat (3.76%), fibre (25.74%), and ash content (23.39%). The phytochemical screening high amount of flavonoids, carotenoid, and glycosides in the RH sample. Vitamins such as A, C, D, E, K and B complexes (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12) as well as minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, zinc, iron, selenium, cobalt, manganese, copper and phosphorus) were also identified in the sample. Meanwhile, the GC-MS analysis of the sample revealed the presence of cynarin, demecolcine, penta-triacontene, hyoscyamine, kheltin, acetyldigoxin, quinoline-3- methyl, coumaric acid, copaene, benzyl benzoate, caryophyllene, danthron, lupenon, beta-amyrin, ephedrine, alpha-ergosterol, galanthamine, kawain, agrimophol, eugenol, anabasine, benzylisoquinoline, carpaine, phytol, phytic acid, myrcene, lobeline, beta-caryophyllene, sparteine, and emetine. This study established that the high nutritional value and bioactive composition of rice husk indicates the rice milling by-product to be a promising food formulate with numerous health benefits.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Singh B. Rice husk ash. In: In Waste and supplementary cementitious materials in concrete. Woodhead Publishing.; 2018. p. 417–60.
Chen R, Congress SS, Cai G, Duan Wand Liu S. Sustainable utilization of biomass waste-rice husk ash as a new solidified material of soil in geotechnical engineering:A review. Contruction Build Mater. 2021;292:123219.
Sani TP, Omolehin RA, Abullahi AU. Economic Activities of Rice Production Practice and the Outcome in Southern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022;6(9):1523–33.
Omolehin RA, Fakayode SB, Oyewole SO. Rice and NonRice Staple Consumption Preference among Urban and Rural Communities of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022;6(11):1876–81.
Soltani N, Bahrami A, Pech-Canul, MI, Gonzalez, LA. Review on the physicochemical treatments of rice husk for production of advanced materials. Chem Eng Journal,. 2015;264:899–935.
Varzakas T, Zakynthinos G, Verpoort F. Plant food residues as a source of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Foods. 2016;5:88.
Sermakkani, M., and Thangapandian V. GC- MS analysis of Cassia italica leaf methanol extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2012;5(2):90–4.
Parichart NK, Sasithorn T, Chaiyasut C, Lailerd N. Antihyperglycemic effect of rice husk derived xylooligosaccharides in high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rat model. Food Sci Nutr. 2020;8(1):428–44.
Hatfield RD and Marita JM. Enzymatic processes involved in the incorporation of hydroxycinnamates into grass cell walls. Phytochem Rev. 2010;9(1):35-45.
Vinodh KS, Natarajan A, Devi K and Senthilkumar B. Chemical composition of aqueous leaf extract of Murraya Koenigii. Int J Pharmacol Biol Arch. 2013;4:493–497.
AOAC. Food composition, additives and natural contaminants. In: Official Methods of Analysis. Helrich, K. (ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International 2, 15th Edition, Arlington, VA, USA. 2000;
Kjeldahl J. Determination of protein nitrogen in food products. J Anal Chem. 1883;22:366–82.
Sultana S. Nutritional and functional properties of Moringaoleifera. Metab open. 2020;8:100061.
Onyeike EN, Ayalogu EO, Okaraonye CC. Nutritive value of the larvae of raphia palm beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros) and weevil (Rhyncophorus pheonicis). J Sci Food Agric. 2005;85:1822–8.
Długaszek M and Kaszczuk M. Assessment of the nutritional value of various teas infusions in terms of the macro-and trace elements content. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2020;59:126428.
Balamurugan K, Nishanthini A, Mohan VR. GC–MS analysis of Polycarpaea corymbosa (L.) Lam whole plant. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012;2(3):1289–129.
Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. 2nd ed. New York: Chapman and Hall; 1984;
Obadoni BO and Ochuko PO. Phytochemical Studies and Comparative Efficacy of the Crude Extract of some Homeostatic plants in Edo and Delta States of Nigeria. Glob J Pure Appl Sci. 2001;8:203–8.
Awah FM, Uzoegwu PN, Ifeonu P, Oyugi JO, Rutherford J, Yao XJ, Fehrmann F, Fowke KR, Eze MO. Free radical scavenging activity, phenolic content and cytotoxicity of selected Nigerian medicinal plants. Food Chem. 2012;131(4):1279 – 1286.
Kumaran A and Karunakaran R. Activity-guided isolation and identification of free radical-scavenging components from an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chem. 2007;100:356 – 361.
Munro A and Bassir O. Oxalatein Nigerian vegetables. West African J Biol Appl Chem. 1969;12(1):14–8.
Dey T, Bhattacharjee T, Nag P, Ghati KA. Valorization of agro-waste into value added products for sustainable development. Bioresour Technol Reports. 2021;16:100834.
Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG LD. Phytochemicals: Extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants. 2017;6(4):42.
Amirkia V and Heinrich M. Alkaloids as drug leads–A predictive structural and biodiversity-based analysis. Phytochem Lett. 2014;10: xlviii–liii.
Wanyo P, Kaewseejan N, Meeso N. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant properties of different solvent extracts derived from Thai rice by-products. Appl Biol Chem. 2016;59(3):373–84.
Butsat S & Siriamornpun S. Phenolic acids and antioxidant activities in husk of different Thai rice varieties. Food Sci Technol Int. 2010;16(4):329–36.
Dolan LC, Matulka RA, Burdock GA. Naturally occurring food toxins. Toxins (Basel). 2010;2(9):2289-2332.
Dahl NK & Goldfarb DS. Nutritional prevention and treatment of urinary tract stones. In Nutritional Management of Renal Disease. Acad Press. 2022;685–97.
Lee KM, Kang HS, Yun CH, Kwak HS. Potential in vitro protective effect of quercetin, catechin, caffeic acid and phytic acid against ethanol-induced oxidative stress in SKHep-1 cells. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2012;20(5):492.
Dharmanda S. Gallnuts and the uses of tannins in Chinese Medicine-A paper presented at the Institute for Traditional Medicine.Portlant,. Oregon. 2003;3:941–5.
Parekh J & Chanda S. In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of some Indian medicinal plants. Turkish J Biol. 2007;31(1):53–8.
Okwu DE & Iroabuchi F. Phytochemical composition and biological activities of Uvaria chamae and Clerodendoron splendens. E-Journal Chem. 2009;6(2):553–600.
Irakli M, Kleisiaris F, Kadoglidou K, Katsantonis D. Phenolic Compounds from Rice By-Products and their antioxidant effects. foods. 2018;7(6):93-102.
Pivie NW and Butler J. A sample unit leaf. Proceeding Nutr scociety. 1977;36:136.
Onyeike EN and Nwideezia ND. Nutritional composition and levels of some toxicants in three species of cocoyam tubers as affected by heat treatments. Niger J Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;16:123–7.
National Research Council. Recommended daily dietary allowance. Nutr Rev. 1974;31:373–95.
Heshe GG, Haki GD, Woldegiorgis AZ, Gemede HF. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread. Food Sci Nutr. 2016;4(4):534–43.
Elleuch M, Bedigian D, Roiseux O, Besbes S, Blecker C, Attia H. Dietary fibre and fibre-rich by-products of food processing: Characterisation, technological functionality and commercial applications: A review. Food Chem. 2011;124(2):411–21.
James WPT, Branch WJ, Southgate DAT. Calcium binding by dietary fibre. Lancet. 1978;1:638–9.
Kritchevsky D. Physiological and metabolic effects of dietary fibre. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1985;180:407–8.
Stevenson K and Ward R. Effect of Optimizing Fiber Intake of Mice on Weight Gain, Fat Mass, Oral Glucose and Insulin Tolerance Tests in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet. Curr Dev Nutr. 2022;6(Supplement_1):536-536.
Millen BE, Abrams S, Adams-Campbell L, Anderson CA, Brenna JT, Campbell WW, Lichtenstein AH. The 2015 dietary guidelines advisory committee scientific report: development and major conclusions. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(3):438–44.
Balogun IO and Olatidoye OP. Chemical composition and nutritional evaluation of velvet bean seeds (Mucuna utilis) for domestic consumption and industrial utilization in Nigeria. Pakistan J Nutr. 2012;11(2):11-22.
Chaturvedi S, Khan S, Bhunia RK, Kaur K,Tiwari S. Metabolic engineering in food crops to enhance ascorbic acid production: crop biofortification perspectives for human health., Physiol Mol Biol Plants. 2022;1-14.
Iniaghe OM, Malomo SO, Adebayo JO. Proximate composition and phytochemical constituents of leaves of some Acalypha species. Pakistan J Nutr. 2009;8(3):256–8.
Vannucci L, Fossi C, Quattrini S, Guasti L, Pampaloni B, Gronchi G, Brandi ML. Calcium intake in bone health: a focus on calcium-rich mineral waters. Nutrients. 2018;10(12):1930.
Abbaspour N, Hurrell R, Kelishadi R. Review on iron and its importance for human health. J Res Med Sci Off J Isfahan Univ Med Sci. 2014;19(2):164.
Zoroddu MA, Aaseth J, Crisponi G, Medici S, Peana M, Nurchi VM. The essential metals for humans: a brief overview. J Inorg Biochem. 2019;195:120–9.
Muhammad WN, Sajuri, Z, Mutoh Y, Miyashita Y. Microstructure and mechanical properties of magnesium composites prepared by spark plasma sintering technology. J Alloy Compd. 2011;509(20):6021–9.
Weyh C, Krüger K, Peeling P, Castell L. The Role of Minerals in the Optimal Functioning of the Immune System. Nutrients. 2022;14(3):644-651.
Silva L, Rodrigues AM, Ciriani M, Falé PLV, Teixeira V, Madeira P. Antiacetylcholinesterase activity and docking studies with chlorogenic acid, cynarin and arzanol from Helichrysum stoechas (Lamiaceae). Med Chem Res [Internet]. 2017;26(11):2942–50.
Davoodi A, Azadbakht M, Hosseinimehr SJ, Emami S, Azadbakht M. Phytochemical Profiles, Physicochemical Analysis, and Biological Activity of Three Colchicum Species. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2021;16(2).
Amudha P, Jayalakshmi M, Pushpabharathi N, Vanitha V. Identification of bioactive components in enhalus acoroides seagrass extract by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018;11(10):313–7.
Muhtadi FJ. Hyoscyamine. Anal Profiles Drug Subst Excipients. 1994;23(C):153–228.
Salah N, Sawy E. Development and validation of analytical methods for the determination of some drugs with herbal origin A thesis presented by. CU Thesis. 2004;1–15.
Sukoyan GV & Gongadze N V. Mechanism of cardioprotective effect of adenocine and non-glycoside cardiotonic drugs during experimental chronic cardiac insufficiency. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2011;150(5):610-613.
Pradhan A & Vishwakarma SK. Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of Schiff base of 7-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-quinolone. Int J Theor Appl Sci. 2018;10(1):40-43.
Nenadis N, Kyriakoudi A, Tsimidou MZ. Impact of alkaline or acid digestion to antioxidant activity, phenolic content and composition of rice hull extracts. LWT - Food Sci Technol [Internet]. 2013;54(1):207–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2013.05.005
Abd-El-Aziz AS, Benaaisha MR, Abdelghani AA, Bissessur R, Abdel-Rahman LH, Fayez AM, El-ezz DA. Aspirin-Based Organoiron Dendrimers as Promising Anti-Inflammatory, Anticancer, and Antimicrobial Drugs. Biomolecules. 2021;11(11):1568.
Bisht BS. Evaluation of Antianxiety activity of Zonisamide based on the Serendipitious action in Swiss albino mice. Int J Curr Res Chem Pharm Sci [Internet]. 2019;6(4):27–32.
Chen H, Zhao C, He R, Zhou M, Liu Y, Guo X, Li X. Danthron suppresses autophagy and sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to doxorubicin. Toxicol Vitr. 2019;54:345-353.
Mutai C, Bii C, Vagias, Abatis D, Roussis V. Antimicrobial activity of Acacia mellifera extracts and lupane triterpenes. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;123(1):143-148.
Santos FA, Frota JT, Arruda BR, de Melo TS, de Castro Brito GA, Chaves MH, Rao VS. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of α, β-amyrin, a triterpenoid mixture from Protium heptaphyllum in mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2012;11(1):1–8.
Trainer A, Powers ME. Ephedra and Its Application to Sport. J Althletic Train. 2001;36(4):420–4.
Kadhim EJ and AL-Shammaa DA. Phytochemical characterization using GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera (Family Moringaceae) plant cultivated in Iraq. Chem Mater Res,. 2014;6(5):9-26.
Fraser MD, Vallin HE, Davies JRT, Rowlands GE, Chang X. Integrating Narcissus ‑derived galanthamine production into traditional upland farming systems. Sci Rep. 2021;1–9.
Liu Z and Zi X. Kawain, a kavalactone, inhibits urinary bladder carcinogenesis in the UPII-mutant Ha-ras transgenic model and associated with inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Am Assoc Cancer Res. 2013;73(8):3709.
Jin G, Du L, Lu Y. Agrimophol. Nat Small Mol Drugs from Plants. 2018;563–7.
Barboza JN, Maia S, Filho B, Silva RO, Medeiros JVR, Sousa DP De. Review Article An Overview on the Antiinflammatory Potential and Antioxidant Profile of Eugenol. 2018;2018.
Palmer-Young EC, Hogeboom A, Kaye AJ. Donnelly, D., Andicoechea, J. and Connon SJ. Content-dependent medicinal effects of anabasine and infection-dependent toxicity in bumble bees. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0183729.
Menéndez-Perdomo IM, Facchini PJ. Isolation and characterization of two O-methyltransferases involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis in sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera). J Biol Chem [Internet]. 2020;295(6):1598–612.
Yap JY, Hii CL, Ong SP, Lim KH, Abas F, Pin KY. Quantification of Carpaine and antioxidant properties of extracts from Carica Papaya plant leaves and stalks. J Bioresour Bioprod [Internet]. 2021; Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobab.2021.03.002
Dinesh Kumar G, Karthik M, Rajakumar R. Gc-Ms Analysis of Bioactive Compounds From Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Waltheria Indica Linn. and Their Pharmacological Activities. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2018;9(5):2005–10.
Sim GY, Lee SU, Lee JW. Enhanced extraction of phytic acid from rice hulls with enzymatic treatment and production of ethanol from reducing sugars in hydrolyzed rice hulls after extraction of phytic acid. Lwt- Food Sci Technol [Internet]. 2020;133:110–1. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.110111
Lee HH, Loh SP, Bong CFJ, Sarbini SR, Yiu PH. Impact of phytic acid on nutrient bioaccessibility and antioxidant properties of dehusked rice. 2015;52(December):7806–16.
Surendran S, Qassadi F, Surendran G, Lilley D, Heinrich M. Myrcene—What Are the Potential Health Benefits of This Flavouring and Aroma Agent? Front Nutr. 2021;8(July):1–14.
Dwoskin LP & Crooks PA. A novel mechanism of action and potential use for lobeline as a treatment for psychostimulant abuse. Biochem Pharmacol. 2002;63(2):89-98.
Bell SJ, Gomez-Pinilla F, Ling PR. Beta-caryophyllene, An Anti-Inflammatory Natural Compound, Improves Cognition. J Food Nutr Sci. 2021;3(2):189-199.
Katsuyama S, Mizoguchi H, Kuwahata H, Komatsu T,Nagaoka K, Nakamura, H, Sakurada S. Involvement of peripheral cannabinoid and opioid receptors in β‐caryophyllene‐induced antinociception. Eur J Pain. 2013;17:664–675.
Al-Onazi W, Al-Mohaimeed AM, Amina M, El-Tohamy MF. Identification of Chemical Composition and Metal Determination of Retama raetam (Forssk) Stem Constituents Using ICP-MS, GC-MS-MS, and DART-MS. J Anal Methods Chem. 2021;2021.
Akinboye SE & Bakare O. Biological activities of emetine. Open Nat Prod J. 2011;4(1):175-186.