Evaluation of the Physical Properties and Anti-aging Microemulgel Sunscreen Nyamplung Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L.)



  • Putri K.N. Sari Master in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Abdul K. Zulkarnain Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
  • Endang Lukitaningsih Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia


anti-aging, sunscreen, nyamplung oil, microemulgel


Exposure to UV rays can cause photoaging, and a photoprotective compound can be used to prevent it, as well as being used as an active ingredient in sunscreen. The potential side effects and contamination of existing sunscreens on the market call for alternatives such as  natural ingredients. Nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L.) has the potential to be used as a sunscreen gel, with a 30.46 SPF value in its formulation. However, Nyamplung oil has the disadvantage of being hydrophobic. Therefore, this study aims to formulate it in the form of a microemulsion gel as a dual-action sunscreen with anti-aging activity. The optimization of the microemulsion formula were performed using Design Expert software, with observations on droplet size, polydispersity index (PDI), and zeta potential. The sunscreen was tested for its SPF value, percent (%) erythema transmission (%Te), percent (%) pigmentation transmission (%Tp), and percent (%) residual elastase enzyme activity (%AE), to demonstrate its anti-aging activity, as well as being tested for its physical properties against the effects of storage, temperature, and photostability, and its safety in potential irritation on rabbits. The optimum micro emulsion formula had a droplet size of 172.46 nm, a PDI of 0.196, and a zeta potential of -6.36 mV. The microemulgel sunscreen met the physical requirements of gel preparations, with an SPF value of 25.73, %Te and %Tp values for sunblock protection categories, and providing 62.96% anti elastase activity at a concentration of 10%. The sunscreen was stable during storage and with the influence of temperature. However, the sunscreen indicated a decrease in SPF value by 18.19% after a photostability test.


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How to Cite

Sari, P. K., Zulkarnain, A. K., & Lukitaningsih, E. (2023). Evaluation of the Physical Properties and Anti-aging Microemulgel Sunscreen Nyamplung Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum L.): http://.www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i2.18. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(2), 2414–2420. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/1658