Comparative Physicochemical Properties of Isolated Pectin from Various Tropical Fruit Peel Wastes http://.www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i2.17
Main Article Content
Pectin is widely used as the main polymer in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biomedical applications. The pectin utilization in diverse fields can contribute to fruit waste processing since waste such as fruit peel serves as a pectin source. This study is aimed to analyze the extraction temperature effect on the physicochemical properties of extracted pectin from various tropical fruit peel waste. In this study, we determined the extracted pectin’s physicochemical properties from peel wastes of tropical fruits like papaya, lime, lemon, and dragon fruit using 3% citric acid at 65 and 90°C. A higher pectin yield resulted from a higher extraction temperature of 90oC (8.78 to 27.03 %) than that obtained at 65oC (5.78 to 17.71 %). The spectra of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) mainly showed the degradation of pectin, specifically in the cases of papaya, lime, and lemon, indicated by the higher OH peak intensity. All samples extracted were high methoxyl pectin (HM), with degrees of esterification (DE) ranging from 56.98 to 89.63%. Among the fruit peels studied, only the lemon peel pectin extracted at 90°C, with anhydrouronic acid (AUA) content of 77.35%, meets the criteria for food additives and pharmaceutical purposes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Gawkowska D, Cybulska J, Zdunek A. Structure-related gelling of pectins and linking with other natural compounds: A review. Polymers (Basel). 2018; 10(7):762.
Mellinas C, Ramos M, Jiménez A, Garrigós MC. Recent trends in the use of pectin from agro-waste residues as a natural-based biopolymer for food packaging applications. Materials (Basel). 2020; 13(3):673.
Belkheiri A, Forouhar A, Ursu AV, Dubessay P, Pierre G, Delattre C, Djelveh G, Abdelkafi S, Hamdami N, Michaud P. Extraction, characterization, and applications of pectins from plant by-products. Appl Sci. 2021; 11(14):6596.
Kim MS, Chandika P, Jung WK. Recent advances of pectinbased biomedical application: potential of marine pectin. J Mar Biosci Biotechnol. 2021; 13(1):28–47.
de Moura FA, Macagnan FT, Dos Santos LR, Bizzani M, de Oliveira Petkowicz CL, da Silva LP. Characterization and physicochemical properties of pectins extracted from agroindustrial by-products. J Food Sci Technol. 2017; 54(10):3111–3117.
Sandarani M. A review: different extraction techniques of pectin. J Pharmacogn Nat Prod. 2017; 3(3):1–5.
Lara-Espinoza C, Carvajal-Millán E, Balandrán-Quintana R, López-Franco Y, Rascón-Chu A. Pectin and pectin-based composite materials: Beyond food texture. Molecules. 2018; 23(4):942.
Sagar NA, Pareek S, Sharma S, Yahia EM, Lobo MG. Fruit and vegetable waste: bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2018; 17(3):512–531.
He C, Sampers I, Raes K. Isolation of pectin from clementine peel: A new approach based on green extracting agents of citric acid/sodium citrate solutions. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2021; 9(2):833–843.
Cho EH, Jung HT, Lee BH, Kim HS, Rhee JK, Yoo SH. Green process development for apple-peel pectin production by organic acid extraction. Carbohydr Polym. 2019; 204:97–103.
Chan SY, Choo WS. Effect of extraction conditions on the yield and chemical properties of pectin from cocoa husks. Food Chem. 2013; 141(4):3752–3758.
Wahengbam E, Nath Shukla R, Kumar A, Anand Mishra A. Extraction of pectin from citrus fruit peel and its utilization in preparation of jelly. Int J Eng Res Technol. 2014; 3(5):1925–1932.
Li DQ, Du GM, Jing WW, Li JF, Yan JY, Liu ZY. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.Carbohydr Polym. 2015; 129(3):108–114.
Liew SQ, Chin NL, Yusof YA. Extraction and characterization of pectin from passion fruit peels. Agric Agric Sci Procedia. 2014; (2014):231–236.
Rezaei M, Khodaiyan F, Mousavi Z, Hosseini SS, Kazemi M. Optimization of pectin extraction from unriped grape pomace using citric acid and investigation of its physicochemical properties. Iran J Biosys Eng. 2021; 51(4):793–804.
Leong CM, Noranizan MA, Kharidah M, Choo WS. Physicochemical properties of pectin extracted from jackfruit and chempedak fruit rinds using various acids. Int Food Res J. 2016; 23(3):973–978.
Hamidon NH, Zaidel DNA. Effect of extraction conditions on pectin yield extracted from sweet potato peels residues using hydrochloric acid. Chem Eng Trans. 2017; 56:979–984.
Karim R, Uddin MB, Jubayer MF. Optimization of pectin isolation method from pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) waste. Carpathian J Food Sci Technol. 2014; 6(2):116–122.
Ramiírez-Benítez JE, Alcantara-Marte YY, Arias Lara GN, Velázquez Vizcaíno ND, Alcantara-Marte YY. Effect of extraction pH and temperature on the physicochemical properties and pectin yield from mango peel (Mangifera indica L.). Agro Product. 2021.
Ranganna S. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products. (2nd ed). New Delhi: McGraw Hill Publishing; 1995.
Khamsucharit P, Laohaphatanalert K, Gavinlertvatana P, Sriroth K, Sangseethong K. Characterization of pectin extracted from banana peels of different varieties. Food Sci Biotechmol. 2018; 27(3):623-629.
Urias-Orona V, Rascón-Chu A, Lizardi-Mendoza J, Carvajal-Millán E, Gardea AA, Ramírez-Wong B. A novel pectin material: extraction, characterization and gelling properties. Int J Mol Sci. 2010; 11(10):3686–3695.
Gnanasambandam, R, Proctor A. Determination of pectin degree of esterification by diffuse reflectance. Food Chem. 2000; 68(3):327–332.
Bhagya Raj GVS, Dash KK. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phytocompounds from dragon fruit peel: optimization, kinetics and thermodynamic studies. Ultrason Sonochem. 2020; 68(3):105180.
Demir D, Ceylan S, Göktürk D, Bölgen N. Extraction of pectin from albedo of lemon peels for preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds. Polym Bull. 2021; 78(4):2211–2226.
Grave LC, McArdle RN, Gohlke JR, Labavitch JM. Impact of heating on carrot firmness: changes in cell wall components. J Agric Food Chem. 1994; 42(12):2900–2906.
Khoo HE, He X, Tang Y, Li Z, Li C, Zeng Y, Tang J, Sun J. Betacyanins and anthocyanins in pulp and peel of red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus cv. Jindu), inhibition of oxidative stress, lipid reducing, and cytotoxic effects. Front Nutr. 2022; 9:894438.
Shofinita D, Bindar Y, Samadhi TW, Jaelawijaya AA, Fawwaz M. Effect of ethanol addition as extraction solvent on the content of bioactive materials in dragon fruit skin extract and powder. Reaktor. 2020; 20(2):68–74.
Lin BC, Cze CY. Drying kinetics and optimisation of pectin extraction from banana peels via response surface methodology. MATEC Web Conf. 2018; 152(01002).
Chua BL, Tang SF, Ali A, Chow YH. Optimisation of pectin production from dragon fruit peels waste: drying, extraction and characterisation studies. SN Appl Sci. 2020; 2(4):1–13.
Nguyen BMN, Pirak T. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of white dragon fruit peel pectin extracted with conventional and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Cogent Food Agric. 2019; 5(1):1633076.
Tongkham N, Juntasalay B, Lasunon P, Sengkhamparn N. Dragon fruit peel pectin: microwave-assisted extraction and fuzzy assessment. Agric Nat Resour. 2017; 51(4):262–267.
Sayah MY, Chabir R, Benyahia H, Kandri YR, Chahdi FO, Touzani H, Errachidi F. Yield, esterification degree and molecular weight evaluation of pectins isolated from orange and grapefruit peels under different conditions. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0161751.
Kanmani P, Dhivya E, Aravind J, Kumaresan K. Extraction and analysis of pectin from citrus peels: augmenting the yield from citrus limon using statistical experimental design. Iran J Energy Environ. 2014; 5(3):303–312.