Evaluation of Food Consumption, Dietary and Lifestyle Habits in a Sample of Jordanian Adults in Al-Zarqa City http://.www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i2.16

Main Article Content

Jafar M. F. El-Qudah



Healthy eating habits should include the right amount of food consumed daily to meet the needs for different nutrients. The aim of this study is to determine the indexes of healthy nutrition in a sample of Jordanian university students aged 18–25 years and to compare them with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). This descriptive cross-sectional design study was conducted among Zarqa University students over a period of six months. The study included 332 participants (150 males and 182 females). Energy and nutrients were calculated from dietary data by using a single 24- hour dietary recall. The mean daily intake was compared with the Dietary Recommended Intake (DRI). Energy intake was less than 1500 kcal in both genders, and dietary fiber intake was less than the recommendations. The mean score of the HEI in the whole sample is 57.4. The majority of students (65.1% of the whole sample) have diets rated in the "Needs Improvement" category. The mean HEI values for each BMI category among the underweight, normal, overweight, and obese males and females were 53.7, 58.3, 57.3, and 56.5, respectively. The mean HEI score of grains was 7.72, vegetables 3.07, fruits 4.44, milk 1.49, meat 6.39, total fat 6.04, saturated fat 7.00, cholesterol 7.72, sodium 7.83, and variety 6.59 in the whole sample. The results show that students need to increase their intake of fruits, vegetables, and dairy products. The results could provide a basis for developing suitable intervention programs to encourage healthy eating in this age group.

Article Details

How to Cite
El-Qudah, J. M. F. (2023). Evaluation of Food Consumption, Dietary and Lifestyle Habits in a Sample of Jordanian Adults in Al-Zarqa City: http://.www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v7i2.16. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(2), 2402–2408. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/1656
Author Biography

Jafar M. F. El-Qudah, Department of Nutrition and Food Processing, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Al-Salt, 19117, Jordan

Department of Diet Therapy Technology and Dietetics, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Zarqa University, Al-Zarqa, Jordan.


Ahmad MN, Haddad FH. Suitability of visceral adiposity index as a marker for cardiometabolic risks in Jordanian adults. Nutr Hosp. 2015; 32(6):2701-2709.

Okokon JE, NyongME, Thomas PS, Daniel AO, Enin GN, Udobang JA. Antiobesity Activity of Extract, Fractions and Pure Compounds from Husk of Zeamays.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(10):1868-1875.

Ajlouni K, Khader Y, Batieha A, Jaddou H, El-Khateeb M. An alarmingly high and increasing prevalence of obesity in Jordan. epiH, 2020; 42: e2020040.

Al Hourani H, Alkhatib B, Abdullah M. Impact of COVID19 Lockdown on Body Weight, Eating Habits, and Physical Activity of Jordanian Children and Adolescents. Disaster Med Public Heal Prep, 2021; 1-9.

Al-Qudah MMA, Al-Sanabra OM, El-Qudah JMF, Deeb ASA, Abu-Harirah HA, Amawi K, Al-Dabbas F. Prevalence of iron insufficiency anemia amongst nonpregnant, childbearing age females resides in Al-Salt City, Jordan. Biosci Res, 2021; 18(4):3201-3207.

Doggui R, El Ati J, Sassi S, Ben Gharbia H, Al-Jawaldeh A, El Ati-Hellal M. Unbalanced intakes of sodium and potassium among Tunisian adults: A cross-sectional study. Food Sci Nutr. 2021;00:1–13.https://doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2197

Al-Awwad N J, Ayoub J, Barham R, Sarhan W, Al-Holy M, Abughoush M, Al-Hourani H, Olaimat A, Al-Jawaldeh A. Review of the Nutrition Situation in Jordan:Trends and Way Forward. Nutrients. 2022; 14:135. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14010135

Musaiger AO, Bader Z, Al-Roomi K, D'Souza R. Dietary and lifestyle habits amongst adolescents in Bahrain. FNR. 2011; 55:7122 - 7130.

Jacobs S, Harmon BE, Ollberding NJ. Among 4 diet quality indexes, only the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score is associated with better colorectal cancer survival and only in African American women in the Multiethnic Cohort. J Nutr. 2016;146(9):1746-1755.

Kolahdooz F, Butler JL, Christiansen K, Diette GB, Breysse PN, Hansel N, McCormack M C, Sheehy T, Gittelsohn J, Sharma S. Food and Nutrient Intake in African American Children and Adolescent s Aged 5 t o 16 Years in Baltimore City. J Am Coll Nutr. 2015; 35(3):1-12.

Attlee A, Haider A, Hassan A, AlzamilN, Hashim M, Obaid R. Dietary Supplement Intake and Associated Factors Among Gym Users in a University Community. J Dietary Supp. 2018; 15(1): 88-97.

Colby S, Zhou W, Allison C, Mathews A E, Olfert M D, Morrell J S, Byrd-Bredbenner C, Greene G, Brown O, Kattelmann K, Shelnutt K. Development and Validation of the Short Healthy Eating Index Survey with a College Population to Assess Dietary Quality and Intake. Nutrients.

; 12(9):2611; doi:10.3390/nu12092611 www.mdpi.com/journal/nutrients

Linaker C H, D’angelo S, Syddall H E, Harris E C, Cooper C, Walker-Bone K. Body mass index (BMI) and work ability in older workers: Results from the health and employment after fifty (HEAF) prospective cohort study. Int J Environ Res Public Health.2020; 17(5). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051647

Alkhalidy H, Orabi A, Alzboun T, Alnaser K, Al-Shami I, Al-Bayyari N. Health-Risk Behaviors and Dietary Patterns Among Jordanian College Students: A Pilot Study. Front. Nutr. 2021; 8:632035. Doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.632035

Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Fast food pattern and cardiometabolic disorders: a review of current studies. Health PromotPerspect. 2015; 5:231. doi: 10.15171/hpp.2015.028

Saha S, Nande P, Nimonkar R. Influence of Hand Anthropometry and Nutrient Intake on Hand Grip Strength: A Correlational Study Among Young Indian Badminton Players. J E B A S, 2022; 10(3): 584–598.

Food Processor SQL. Food Processor nutrition and fitness software. Food Processor SQL Inc., Salem, OR, USA 2008.

Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes: A Risk Assessment Model for Establishing Upper Intake Levels for Nutrients.1998. http://www.nap.edu/catalog/6432

Basiotis P P, Carlson A, Gerrior S A, Juan W Y, Lino M, "The Healthy Eating Index: 1999-2000", United States Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and promotion, CNPP-12,2002. https://www.fns.usda.gov/cnpp/healthy-eating-index-heireports

Guenther PM, Kirkpatrick SI, Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM, Buckman DW, Dodd KW, Casayale KO, Carroll RJ. The healthy eating index-2010 is a valid and reliable measure of diet quality according to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans. J Nutr. 2014; 144:399-407.

Marzban A, Marzban A. Is the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) Associated with Depression and Anxiety? JNFS 2021; 6(4): 86-288.

Amr R, Smadi A, Akasheh R, Dababneh B, Qatatsheh A, Mayyas A, Hamad IM. Impact of demographics, education, and stress on body mass index among Jordanian university students. Top Clin Nutr. 2019; 34:200–8.

Bibiloni M, Coll J, Pich J, Pons A, Tur J. Body image satisfaction and weight concerns among a Mediterranean adult population. BMC Public Health. 2017; 17:39. doi: 10.1186/s12889-016-3919-7

Lesani A, Mohammad poorasl A, Javadi M, Esfeh J, FakhariA. Eating breakfast, fruit and vegetable intake and their relation with happiness in college students. Eat Weight Disord. 2016; 21(4): 645–51.

Mansouri M, Hasani-Ranjbar S, Yaghubi H, Rahmani J, Tabrizi YM, Keshtkar A, Varmaghani M, Sharifi F, Sadeghi O. Breakfast consumption pattern and its association with overweight and obesity among university students: a population-based study. Eat Weight Disord. 2020; 25(2):379–87.

Salameh P, Jomaa L, Issa C, Farhat G, Salamé J, Zeidan N, et al. Assessment of dietary intake patterns and their correlates among university students in Lebanon. Front Public Health. 2014; 2:185. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00185

WHO. Global action plan on physical activity 2018–2030: more active people for a healthier world. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2018. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/272722/9789241514187-eng.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Schneider B, Dumith S, Orlandi S, Assunção M. Diet and body fat in adolescence and early adulthood: a systematic review of longitudinal studies. CienciaSaudeColetiva. 2017; 22:1539–52.

Azagba S, Sharaf M. Fruit and vegetable consumption and body mass index: a quantile regression approach. J Prim Care Community Health. 2012; 3:210–20.

de Souza Fernandes D P, Ribeiro A Q, Duarte M S L, Franceschini S C. Systematic review of healthy eating indexes in adults and elderly: applicability and validity. Nutr Hosp. 2015; 32:510-516.

Guenther P, Reedy J, Krebs-Smith S. Development of the healthy eating index-2005. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108(11):1896–901.

Alfreeh L, Alomar S, Aljuraiban G S. Association of diet quality with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and the adherence to the Saudi dietary guidelines among female college students. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2022;34(2):01765

Bahreini N, Entezari M. Nutritional status of the cardiac patients hospitalized in cardiology ward of Alzahra hospital and its comparison with Healthy Eating Index. Pak J Nutr. 2007; 6(6):708-711.

Constandache M, Condrea E, Stanciu A. Quality Assessment of Romanian's Diet by Healthy Eating Index."Ovidius"University Annals, Economic Sciences Series. 2014; XIV(1): 285-290

Bowman SA, Lino M, Gerrior SA, Basiotis PP. The Healthy Eating Index: 1994-96. US Dep Agric Cent Nutr Policy Promot. 1998; 2600:1–18.

Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K. The Healthy Eating Index: Desing and applications. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995; 95(10): 1108-13.

Preston AM. Is the Healthy Eating Index Underutilized? J Nutr Food Sci. 2021; 4(1): 026. 100026ISSN: 2565-5779

Fatrcová-Šramková K, Schwarzová M, Juríková T. Healthy Eating Index and Different Fruit Dietary Habits in Slovak Adult Female. Potr S J F Sci.2019; 13(1): 83-93.

Schroder H. Protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet in obesity and type 2 diabetes. J NutrBiochem. 2007; 18: 149–160.

Kawabata M, Lee K, Choo H C, Burns S. Breakfast and exercise improve academic and cognitive performance in adolescents. Nutrients. 2021; 13(4):1–19.