Phytochemical Composition and Inhibitory Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cucumis sativus Infusions Against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme


  • Ahmad Yani Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia
  • Venny Patricia Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia
  • Firdaus Syafii Department of Nutrition, The Polytechnic of Health of Mamuju, Indonesia.


infusion, ACE, roselle, cucumber, antihypertensive,


Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cucumis sativus are often used in ethnomedicinal practice for treating several health conditions, including hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro inhibitory activities of H. sabdariffa and C. sativus against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and their phytochemical properties directly from their infusions. Each infusion was prepared with a concentration of 10, 20, and 30 grams of plant material in 300 ml of hot distilled water. Combinations of both plants were also prepared in 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 ratios. The inhibitory activities were determined by the colorimetric method. The results showed that the highest inhibition rates of H. sabdariffa and C. sativus infusions were 88.741±0.001% and 92.180±0.001%, respectively. Meanwhile, the highest inhibition rate of the combination infusion was obtained from the ratio of H. sabdariffa: C. sativus (1:2), which was 96.062±0.001%, although this result was still below the inhibitory activity of Captopril (97.393±0.001%). The phytochemical screening results indicated that H. sabdariffa infusions contain saponins and tannins, and C. sativus infusions contain alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids. This study concluded that the infusion with the ratio of H. sabdariffa: C. sativus (1:2) demonstrated the strongest inhibitory activity against ACE and, therefore, could potentially be utilized as a functional drink for managing hypertension.

Author Biographies

Ahmad Yani, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia

Hypertension Prevention and Control Research Center, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia

Venny Patricia, Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia

Hypertension Prevention and Control Research Center, The Polytechnic of Health of Banten, Indonesia


Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, Agabiti RE, Azizi M, Burnier M, Clement DL, Coca A, De Simone G, Dominiczak A, Kahan T. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of

Cardiology (ESC) and the European Society of Hypertension (ESH). Eur Heart J. 2018; 39(33):3021-3104.

Liu H, Liang ZM, Li RT, Yu YG. Advances in the mechanisms of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on hypertension. E3S Web Conf. 2020; 145:01039.

Lee SY, Hur SJ. Antihypertensive peptides from animal products, marine organisms, and plants. Food Chem. 2017; 228:506-517.

Marte F, Sankar P, Cassagnol M. Captopril. In: StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, Treasure Island (FL); 2022. PMID: 30571007.

Montes-Rubio PY, Fabela-Illescas HE. Bioactive compounds and antihypertensive activity of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Mexican J Med Res ICSA. 2019; 7(13):12-18.

Okereke CN, Iroka FC, Chukwuma MO. Phytochemical analysis and medicinal uses of Hibiscus sabdariffa. Int J Herb Med. 2015; 2(6):16-19.

Yuan RQ, Qian L, Yun WJ, Cui XH, Lv GX, Tang WQ, Cao RC, Xu H. Cucurbitacins extracted from Cucumis melo L. (CuEC) exert a hypotensive effect via regulating vascular tone. Hypertens Res. 2019; 42(8):1152-1161.

Riaz G, Naik SN, Garg M, Chopra R. Phytochemical composition of an underutilized plant Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) cultivated in India. Lett Appl NanoBioScience. 2021; 10(2):2138-2147.

Nnachetam UV, Florence ON, Charity ON, Pius E. Phytochemical constituents and antibacterial activities ofHibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces (Zobo flower) extracts on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Health Sci Res. 2020; 11(1):12-16.

Jamini TS, Islam AK, Mohi-ud-Din M, Saikat MM. Phytochemical composition of calyx extract of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. J Food Tech Food Chem. 2019; 2: 102.

Obouayeba AP, Djyh NB, Diabate S, Djaman AJ, N’guessan JD, Kone M, Kouakou TH. Phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) petal extracts. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2014; 5(2):1453-1465.

Adusei S. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant evaluation of methanolic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa. IPTEK J Technol Sci. 2020; 31(2):139-147.

Jamrozik D, Borymska W, Kaczmarczyk-Żebrowska I. Hibiscus sabdariffa in diabetes prevention and treatment—Does it work? An evidence-based review. Foods. 2022; 11(14): 2134.

Umeoguaju FU, Ephraim-Emmanuel BC, Uba JO, Bekibele GE, Chigozie N, Orisakwe OE. Immunomodulatory and mechanistic considerations of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in dysfunctional immune responses: A systematic review. Front Immunol. 2021; 1435.

Laskar YB, Mazumder PB. Insight into the molecular evidence supporting the remarkable chemotherapeutic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020; 127: 110153.

Tarmooz AA, Al-Yasiri TH, Abdali Y. The use of Hibiscus sabdariffa infusion for the prevention and treatment of high blood lipids compared with Statin treatment. Plant Arch. 2020; 20(2):812-817.

Aguirre-García F, Yáñez-López L, Armella MA, Verde JR. Studies from Hibiscus sabdariffa (Hibiscus) plant for blood cholesterol levels reduction. Am J Plant Sci. 2019; 10(04):497-511.

Ojulari OV, Lee SG, Nam JO. Beneficial effects of natural bioactive compounds from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on obesity. Molecules. 2019; 24(1):210-223.

Mojiminiyi F, Aliyu B, Oyeniyi Y, Isezuo S, Alada A. The effect of acute administration of the aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure, heart rate and double product of apparently healthy human subjects during different postures. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2022; 37(1):147-152.

Chiu HF, Liao YR, Shen YC, Han YC, Golovinskaia O, Venkatakrishnan K, Hung CC, Wang CK. Improvement on blood pressure and skin using roselle drink: A clinical trial. J Food Biochem. 2022; 46(10): e14287.

Jalalyazdi M, Ramezani J, Izadi-Moud A, Madani-Sani F, Shahlaei S, Ghiasi SS. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on blood pressure in patients with stage 1 hypertension. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2019; 10(3):107-111.

Nwachukwu DC, Aneke EI, Obika LF, Nwachukwu NZ. Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: a comparative study with lisinopril. Indian J Pharmacol. 2015; 47(5):540-545.

Nwachukwu DC, Aneke EI, Nwachukwu NZ, Azubike N, Obika LF. Does consumption of an aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa affect renal function in subjects with mild to moderate hypertension? J Physiol Sci. 2017; 67(1):227-234.

Abu-Reidah IM, Arráez-Román D, Quirantes-Piné R, Fernández-Arroyo S, Segura-Carretero A, FernándezGutiérrez A. HPLC–ESI-Q-TOF-MS for a comprehensive characterization of bioactive phenolic compounds in cucumber whole fruit extract. Food Res Int. 2012; 46(1):108-117.

Agatemor UM, Okwesili FC, Chioma AA. Phytochemical and proximate composition of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) fruit from Nsukka, Nigeria. Afr J Biotechnol. 2018; 17(38): 1215-1219.

Insanu M, Rizaldy D, Silviani V, Fidrianny I. Chemical compounds and pharmacological activities of Cucumis genus. Biointerface Res Appl Chem. 2022; 12(1):1324-1334.

Mukherjee PK, Nema NK, Maity N, Sarkar BK. Phytochemical and therapeutic potential of cucumber. Fitoterapia. 2013; 84:227-36.

Tuama AA, Mohammed AA. Phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial and anticancer activities of the aqueous extract of Cucumis sativus. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2019; 26(3):600-604.

Nash RJ, Bartholomew B, Penkova YB, Rotondo D, Yamasaka F, Stafford GP, Jenkinson SF, Fleet GW. Iminosugar idoBR1 isolated from Cucumber Cucumis sativus reduces inflammatory activity. ACS Omega. 2020; 5(26):16263-16271.

Agatemor UM, Nwodo O, Anosike C. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cucumis sativus L. Br. J. Pharm. Res. 2015; 8(2):1-8.

Nafeesa Z, Shivalingu BR, Neema KN, Achar RR, Venkatesh BK, Hanchinal V, Priya BS, Nanjunda Swamy S. Procoagulant serine glycoprotease from Cucumis sativus L.: action on human fibrinogen and fibrin clot. 3 Biotech. 2017; 7(2):1-11.

Nash RJ, Azantsa BK, Sharp H, Shanmugham V. Effectiveness of Cucumis sativus extract versus glucosamine-chondroitin in the management of moderate osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Interv Aging. 2018; 13:2119-2126.

Vargas-León EA, Díaz-Batalla L, González-Cruz L, Bernardino-Nicanor A, Castro-Rosas J, Reynoso-Camacho R, Gómez-Aldapa CA. Effects of acid hydrolysis on the free radical scavenging capacity and inhibitory activity of the angiotensin converting enzyme of phenolic compounds of two varieties of jamaica (Hibiscus sabdariffa). Ind Crops Prod. 2018; 116:201-208.

Guardiola S, Mach N. Therapeutic potential of Hibiscus sabdariffa: A review of the scientific evidence. Endocrinol Nutr (English Ed). 2014; 61(5):274-295.

Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. (3rd ed.). New York: Chapman and Hall; 1998. 88-185 p.

Lam LH, Shimamura T, Manabe S, Ishiyama M, Ukeda H. Assay of angiotensin I-converting enzyme-inhibiting activity based on the detection of 3-hydroxybutyrate with watersoluble tetrazolium salt. Anal Sci. 2008; 24(8): 1057-1060.

Dojindo Laboratories. ACE Kit-WST Technical Manual. [Online]. 2021 [cited 2022 Sep 30]. Available from:

Martins N, Barros L, Santos-Buelga C, Henriques M, Silva S, Ferreira IC. Decoction, infusion and hydroalcoholic extract of Origanum vulgare L.: Different performances regarding bioactivity and phenolic compounds. Food Chem. 2014; 158:73-80.

Rasheed DM, Porzel A, Frolov A, El Seedi HR, Wessjohann LA, Farag MA. Comparative analysis of Hibiscus sabdariffa(roselle) hot and cold extracts in respect to their potential for α-glucosidase inhibition. Food Chem. 2018; 250:236-244.

Bulan DE, Nurfadilah N, Syahrir MR, Mismawati A, Torambung AK, Rachmawati M. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of leaf extracts from three Rhizophora species from Bontang Waters, Indonesia. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(8):1178-1182.

Tehreem S, Rahman S, Bhatti MS, Uddin R, Khan MN, Tauseef S, El-Seedi HR, Bin Muhsinah A, Uddin J, Musharraf SG. A UPLC-DAD-based bio-screening assay for the evaluation of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory potential of plant extracts and compounds: pyrroquinazoline alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica as a case study. Molecules. 2021; 26(22):6971.

Chakraborty R, Roy S. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors from plants: a review of their diversity, modes of action, prospects, and concerns in the management of diabetes-centric complications. J Integr Med. 2021; 19(6):478-492.

Chen M, Long Z, Wang Y, Liu J, Pian H, Wang L, Chen Z. Protective effects of saponin on a hypertension target organ in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Exp Ther Med. 2013; 5(2):429-432.

Liu JC, Hsu FL, Tsai JC, Chan P, Liu JY, Thomas GN, Tomlinson B, Lo MY, Lin JY. Antihypertensive effects of tannins isolated from traditional Chinese herbs as nonspecific inhibitors of angiontensin converting enzyme. Life Sci. 2003; 73(12): 1543-1555.

Ugwu P, Ubom R, Madueke P, Okorie P, Nwachukwu D. Anti-hypertensive effects of anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldoslestrone System in Wistar rats. Niger J Physiol Sci. 2022; 37(1):113-117.

Ebeigbe AB, Arishe OO. Mechanisms of vasodilation induced by medicinal plants: a mini-review. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2017; 1(3):97-99.



How to Cite

Yani, A., Patricia, V., & Syafii, F. (2023). Phytochemical Composition and Inhibitory Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Cucumis sativus Infusions Against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 7(2), 2341–2345. Retrieved from