Elucidation of the Phytochemicals, Safety Profile, and Preclinical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Combretum paniculatum Leaves . http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i12.23

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Ifeoma F. Chukwuma
Kelechi T. Aniagboso
Blessing E. Atrogo
Ukinebo E. Ese
Obasi Ezeali
Anthony U. Eze
Sandra N. Onuorah
Stanley T. Onyishi
Benita M. Titus
Emmanuel I. Ugwu


Inflammatory aberrations constitute the major pathophysiological basis for most chronic diseases. This study investigated the phytochemicals, safety profile, and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Combretum paniculatum leaves (EECP). Phytochemical screening and the acute toxicity of EECP were determined using standard methods. Egg albumin (0.1 mL) was used as a phlogistic agent for induction of inflammation in the right hind paw of rats one hour after treatment with diclofenac (100 mg/kg) and EECP (100 and 200 mg/kg). Paw volume was measured before induction and hourly for 5 hours using the plethysmometer. Further, membrane stabilization tests and nitric oxide scavenging activity were used to decipher the inflammatory mechanisms. EECP is rich in phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, and reducing sugars. Tannins and terpenoids were present in moderate amounts, while low contents of steroids and glycosides were recorded in EECP. There was no mortality and visible signs of toxicity up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg after 24 h. Moreso, EECP significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed edema formation, with 200 mg/kg of EECP having a higher effect than diclofenac after 1, 2, and 3 h post-induction. Similarly, EECP inhibited membrane hemolysis and nitric oxide production with IC50 values of 115.3 and 6.547 µg/mL, respectively, against 74.56 and 4.667 µg/mL recorded for standard drugs, diclofenac and ascorbic acid, respectively. Taken together, EECP has strong anti-inflammatory activity, and the possible mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action could be by stabilizing the membrane, thereby mitigating the release of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide to the inflamed region. 

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Chukwuma, I. F., Aniagboso, K. T., Atrogo, B. E., Ese, U. E., Ezeali, O., Eze, A. U., Onuorah, S. N., Onyishi, S. T., Titus, B. M., & Ugwu, E. I. (2022). Elucidation of the Phytochemicals, Safety Profile, and Preclinical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethanol Extract of Combretum paniculatum Leaves: . http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i12.23. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(12), 2035–2040. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/1418


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