In vitro Antioxidant and Immunological-Associated Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Azima sarmentosa (Blume) Benth. & Hook. F

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Neeranuch Sankla
Panida Loutchanwoot
Surasak Khankhum
Saranyu Khammuang
Rakrudee Sarnthima
Nuchsupha Sunthamala


Azima sarmentosa (Blume) Benth. & Hook. F. is a halophyte, which has traditionally been used to treat various diseases. The in vitro antioxidant and immunological-associated activities of A. sarmentosa ethanolic extracts were evaluated in this study. The roots, stems, and leaves of A. sarmentosa were extracted with 70% ethanol. Phytochemicals were screened, and antioxidant activity was determined. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was examined on white blood cells, red blood cells, and the THP-1 cell line. The anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties of extracts were analyzed for expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IFN-β mRNA by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that root, stem, and leaf extracts of A. sarmentosa contain alkaloids, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and stigmasterol. Phenolics and tannins were found in stem and leaf extracts while steroids were found only in the leaf extract. Higher levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds were found in the leaf extract, in line with their antioxidant activities. All extracts showed no cytotoxicity to immune cells. Root, stem, and leaf extracts exhibited antiinflammatory properties by down-regulating TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) pre-treated THP-1 cells. Moreover, root, stem, and leaf extracts also had antiviral properties by up-regulation of IFN-β mRNA expression. The down-regulation of TNF-α and IL-6 and up-regulation of IFN-β mRNA expression were also found in stigmasterol and taraxerone-treated cells. The findings of the present study reveal that crude extracts of A. sarmentosa have potential anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties that could be used to develop alternative therapeutic strategies.

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Sankla, N., Loutchanwoot, P., Khankhum, S., Khammuang, S., Sarnthima, R., & Sunthamala, N. (2022). In vitro Antioxidant and Immunological-Associated Activities of Ethanol Extracts of Azima sarmentosa (Blume) Benth. & Hook. F: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(12), 2007–2013. Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Surasak Khankhum, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44150, Thailand

Isan Saline Soil Research Unit (ISSRU), Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44150, Thailand

Nuchsupha Sunthamala, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44150, Thailand

Isan Saline Soil Research Unit (ISSRU), Faculty of Science, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44150, Thailand


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