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Caused by the Leishmania parasite and transmitted by the bite of sand flies, leishmaniasis is a multi-factor disease which causes a big health problem. Anarchic, accelerated, and unplanned urbanization, as well as inadequate environmental hygiene and important human migratory flows constitute risk factors for Leishmaniasis. From this point of view and through the present study, the risk factors of leishmaniasis that represent the impact of the population, urbanization, and poverty on the distribution of the disease in the study area have been evaluated. The health data for this study were obtained from the registers of the prefectural of epidemiology unit.
However, the socio-economic data were obtained from the High Commissioner’s Office of Morocco. The statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software. The evolution of the annual number of leishmaniasis cases reported during the study period shows that the provinces most affected by this epidemic are the provinces of Taza and Taounate with 25%, as well as Boulemane (18%) and Sefrou (16%). In addition, the study of the risk factors of this epidemic shows a positive correlation between leishmaniasis cases reported and urbanization (R = 0, 51) and a weak correlation between demographic weight and leishmaniasis cases reported (R = 0, 27). However, there is no relationship between the distribution of leishmaniasis and poverty. These results show the impact of socioeconomic factors on the distribution of leishmaniasis in the Fez-Meknes region. Indeed, actors should take these results into consideration when determining risk areas in order to develop a leishmaniasis alert system.
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