In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Photoprotective Effect of Elephantopus Mollis Extracts


  • Verawati Verawati Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Andalas University, West Sumatera-25175, Indonesia
  • Almahdy Almahdy Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy,Andalas University, West Sumatera-25175, Indonesia
  • Febriyenti Febriyenti Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,Andalas University, West Sumatera-25175, Indonesia
  • Deddi P. Putra Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Andalas University, West Sumatera-25175, Indonesia


Elephantopus mollis, Ultraviolet radiation, Antioxidant, Phenolic, Photoprotective


Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun can cause various harmful effects such as erythema, wrinkles, dark spots and sunburn that trigger premature aging and skin cancer. This research aimed to explore the photoprotective potential of the nonpolar, semipolar, and polar extracts of Elephantopus mollis herbs through in vitro and in vivo evaluation. In vitro evaluation was done by examining antioxidant activity, determination of sun protection factor (SPF) value, total phenolic content, and identification of the chemical components of the extract. The most active extract on in vitro evaluation was used for in vivo testing with observation parameters of erythema and wrinkle formation and dermal histopathology of mice exposed to radiation from ultraviolet lamps. The in vitro examination showed that the polar extract had the best photoprotective potential compared to other extracts, with high antioxidant activity (IC50 46.55μg/mL), total phenolic content of 109.2 mg/g extract GAE (gallic acid equivalent), and SPFvalues of 13.5. Topical administration of polar extract with increased doses showed improved skin performance and dermis of mice exposed to ultraviolet radiation. The polar extract can significantly reduce erythema, wrinkles, and dermis histological performance similar to the normal skin structure of mice. LC-HRMS analysis showed that the polar extract contains bioactive components of polyphenols and flavonoids such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, rutin, trifolin, and 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Polar extract from Elephantopus mollis exhibited a high phenolic content and good antioxidant activity and was able to protect the skin from the negative effects of repeated UV exposure. 

Author Biography

Verawati Verawati, Department of Biology Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Andalas University, West Sumatera-25175, Indonesia

Faculty of Pharmacy, UniversitasPerintis Indonesia, West Sumatera-25586, Indonesia


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How to Cite

Verawati, V., Almahdy, A., Febriyenti, F., & P. Putra, D. (2022). In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Photoprotective Effect of Elephantopus Mollis Extracts: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(3), 365–370. Retrieved from