Antioxidant and Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Potential of Methanol Extract of Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit with Husk


  • Maryam U. Ahmed Department of Biochemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria
  • Ushuwa Bala Department of Biochemistry, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Adamawa, Nigeria
  • Isaac J. Umaru Department of Biochemistry, Federal University, Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria


Alpha amylase,, Diabetes,, Antioxidant,, Oxidative stress,, Unripe M. paradisiaca


Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of death in adults. The study aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and alpha amylase inhibitory potential of methanol extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca Linn fruit with husk. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity, diphenyl  -1- picrlhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, alpha amylase inhibitory potential and the mode of inhibition of methanol extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca Linn fruit with husk were determined using standard methods. The DPPH IC50 of the methanol extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca Linn fruit with husk was comparable with the standard; ascorbic acid. The percentage inhibition of methanol extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca Linn fruit  with  husk  at 2.50  mg/mL  and  10.0  mg/mL  were  greater  than  50% (67%  and  73%). Acarbose at 1.25 mg/mL, 2.50 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL had a percentage inhibition of 61%, 67% and 70% respectively. The maximum velocity (Vmax) of the enzyme in the presence of the unripe Musa paradisiaca with dried husk extract (inhibitor) was 0.8 mM/min and it was also 0.8 mM/min in the absence of inhibitor (no plant extract). The Michealis-Menten constant (Km) of the enzyme in the presence of the inhibitor was 1.3 mg/mL, while it was 0.7 mg/mL in the absence of the inhibitor. This study concluded that the methanol extract of unripe Musa paradisiaca Linn fruit with husk has high antioxidant capacity. It also inhibits alpha amylase in a competitive way. It can therefore be used to treat diabetes mellitus.


Propac P, Jamova K, Simunkova M, Kollar V, Rhodes CJ, Valko M. Targeting free radicals in oxidative stress-related human diseases. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2017; 38(7):592–607.

Jakubczyk K, Dec K, Kaldunska J, Kawczuga D, Kochman J, Janda K. Reactive oxygen species-sources, functions, oxidative damage. Polski Merkurusczi Lekarski. 2020; 48(284):124–127.

Pasupuleti VR, Arigela CS, Gan HS, Salam SKN, Krishnan KT, Abdulrahman N, Jefferr MJ. A review on oxidative stress, diabetic complications and the roles of honey polyphenols. Oxid Med Cellul Longev. 2017; 2020: 1 - 16.

Rajudicsa P, Packirisang S, Guassekera K. A review on role of antioxidants in diabetes. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018; 11(2):1-6.

Giacco F and Brown LM. Oxidative stress and diabetic complications. Circulation Res. 2010; 107(9):1058-1070.

Tiedge M, Lortz S, Drinkgern J, Lensen S. Relationship between antioxidant enzyme gene expression and antioxidative defense states of insulin producing cells. Diabetes. 1997, 46:1733-1742.

Gulcin I. Antioxidants and antioxidant methods: an updated overview. Arch Toxicol. 2020; 1-65.

Agarwal P and Gupta R. Alpha amylase inhibition can treat diabetes mellitus. Res Rev J Med Health Sci. 2016; 5(4):1- 8.

Kaur N, Kumar V, Nayak SK, Wadhwa P, Kaur P, Sha SK. Alpha amylase as molecular target for treatment of diabetes mellitus; A comprehensive review. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2021; 98(4):539-560.

Poovitha V and Paran M. In vitro and in vivo α-amylase and α- glucosidase inhibitory activities of the protein extracts from two varieties of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia C.) BMC Complement. and Altern. Med. 2016; 16(suppl 1), 185.

Hemlata B, Pornima G, Tukaram K, Pankaj B. In vitro anti- amylase activity of some Indian dietary spices. J Appl Biol Biotechnol. 2019; 7(04):70–74.

Adamu AS, Ojo IO, Oyetunde JG. Evaluation of nutritional values in ripe, unripe, boiled and roasted plantain (Musa pradisiaca) pulp and peel. Eur J Basic Appl Sci. 2017; 4(1):2059-3058.

Ajiboye BO, Oloyede HOB, Salawu MO. Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca-based diet in alloxan –induced diabetic rats. Food Sci. and Nutri. 2017; 6(1):137-145.

Gilver RC and Liliana S. Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca L. cv. Dominico Harton) peel flour as binder in frankfurter- type sausage. Acta Agronomica. 2017; 66(3).

Arun KB, Persia F, Aswathy PS, Chandran J, Sajeev MS, Jayamurthy SP, Nisha P. Plantain peel- a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies. J Food Sci Technol. 2015; 52(10):6355-6364.

Uzairu SM and Kano MA. Assessment of phytochemical and mineral composition of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peels. Afr J Food Sci. 2021; 15(3):107–112.

Fejes S, Blazovics A, Lugasi A, Lemberkovics E, Petri G, Kery A. In vitro antioxidant activity of Anthriscus cerefolium L. (Hoffm.) extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000; 69(3):259–265.

Katalinic D, Claus A, Carle R, Scheiber A. Screening of 70 medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. Food Chem. 2006; 94 (2006):550–557.

McCue P, Kwon YI, Shetty K. Antidiabetic and anti- hypetensive potential of sprouted and solid-state bioprocessed soybean. Asian Pac J Clin Nutr. 2005; 14 9(2):145-152.

Ali H, Houghton PJ., Soumyanath A. Alpha amylase inhibitory activity of some Malaysian plants used to treat diabetes; with particular reference to Phyllanthus amarus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107(3):449-455.

Ahmed MU, Ibrahim A, Dahiru NJ, Mohammed HS. Alpha amylase inhibitory potential and mode of inhibition of oils from Allium sativum (garlic) and Allium cepa (onion). Clin. Med. Insights: Endocrinol. and Diabetes. 2020; 13:1179551420963106.

Rahman MM, Badrul Islam MD, Biswas M, Alam KMAH. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of different parts of Tabebura pallida growing in Bangladesh. BMC Res. Notes. 2015; 621(2015).

Baumann J, Wurn G, Bruchlausen FV. Prostaglandin synthases inhibition by flavonoids and phenolic compounds in relation to their O2 scavenging properties. Arch Pharmacol. 1980; 313(4): 330-337.

Bajaj, S, Khan, A. Antioxidants and diabetes. Indian J. Endocrinol. Metab. 2012; 16(suppl 2):S267–S271.

Johansen JS, Harris AK, Rychyl DJ, Ergul A. Oxidative stress and the use of antioxidants in diabetes: Linking basic science to clinical practice. Cardiovasc. Diabetol. 2005; 4:5.

Wickramaratne MN, Punchiheva JC, Wickramaratne DBM. In vitro alpha amylase inhibitory activity of the leaf extracts of Adenanthera pavonina. BMC Compl Altern Med. 2016; 8(5):5- 11.

Kazeem MI, Ogunbiyi JV, Ashafa AOT. In vitro studies on the inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase by leaf extracts of Picralima nitida (Stapf). Trop J Pharm Res. 2013; 12(5):719-725

Lou W, Chen Y, Hanjun M, Liang G, Liu B. Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibitory activities of tannic acid. J Food Sci. Technol. 2018; 55(9):3640–3646.

Asoso OS, Akharaiyi FC, Animba LS. Antibacterial activities of plantain (Musa paradisiaca) peel and fruit. Der Pharm Lett. 2016; 8(5):5–11.

Ukanwoko AI, Adamu FO, Okah U. In vitro digestibility and nutrient profile of dried and ensiled ripe and unripe plantain peels. Nig J Anim Sci. 2019; 21(2):155 – 165.

Kibria AA, Kamrunness MD, Rahman M, Kar A. Extraction and evaluation of phytochemicals from banana peels (Musa sapientum) and banana plants (Musa paradisiaca). Malay J Halal Res. 2019; 2(1): 22 -26.

Rahimzadeh M, Jahanshashi S, Moein S, Moein MR. Evaluation of alpha amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014; 17(6):465– 469.

Tundis R, Loizzo MR, Menichini F. Natural products as alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitors and their potential in the treatment of diabetes: an update. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2010; 10(4):315–331.




How to Cite

U. Ahmed, M., Bala, U., & J. Umaru, I. (2022). Antioxidant and Alpha Amylase Inhibitory Potential of Methanol Extract of Unripe Musa paradisiaca Fruit with Husk: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(8), 1283–1295. Retrieved from