Phytochemical Profile and in vitro Sun-Protective Activity of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites Bark Extracts


  • Bhawana Bhatt Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Himanshu Chaurasia Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Ranjit Singh Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India
  • Sudhakar Kaushik Adarsh Vijendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shobhit University, Gangoh, Saharanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India


Hyperpigmentation,, Mansur equation,, Polyalthia longifolia,, Sunscreen,, Ultraviolet radiation.


Sunscreen formulations are required to protect the skin from damaging ultraviolet radiation, which causes irritation, erythema (sunburn), generalized or localized hyperpigmentation (tanning), skin malignancies, immunosuppression, and inflammation. Efficacious, high-quality products are in high demand currently. There are some sunscreens with broad spectrum UV protection that are inexpensive, safe, and herbal. The present study was conducted to investigate the phytochemical profile and sun-protective properties of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites extracts. The bark of P. longifolia was extracted with water, ethanol, and petroleum ether by the cold maceration method. A preliminary phytochemical screening on the P. longifolia bark extracts was conducted. The in vitro sun-protective activity of the different P. longifolia extracts was assessed by determining the sun protection factor (SPF) using the UV spectroscopic technique. The results of the phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, and tannins in all the P. longifolia bark extracts. The SPF values of the different extracts were observed to be 5.24±0.002, 1.07±0.009, and 1.01±0.012 for the ethanolic, petroleum ether, and water extracts, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that the aqueous, ethanol, and petroleum ether extracts of P. longifolia bark could be used to make photoprotective formulations that have additive or synergistic effects in a variety of combinations and quantities.


He H, Li A, Li S, Tang J, Li L, Xiong L. Natural components in sunscreens: Topical formulations with a sun protection factor (SPF). Biomed Pharmacother. 2020; 134:111161.

De Jager TL, Cockrell AE, Du Plessis SS. Ultraviolet light- induced generation of reactive oxygen species. Ultraviolet light in human health. Dis Environ. 2017; 996:15-23.

Jallad KN. Chemical characterization of sunscreens composition and its related potential adverse health effects. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2017; 16(3):353-7.

Dunaway S, Odin R, Zhou L, Ji L, Zhang Y, Kadekaro AL. Natural antioxidants: multiple mechanisms to protect skin from solar radiation. Front Pharmacol. 2018; 9:392.

Edlich R, Winters KL, Lim HW, Cox MJ, Becker DG, Horowitz JH, Nichter LS, Britt LD, Long III WB. Photoprotection by sunscreens with topical antioxidants and systemic antioxidants to reduce sun exposure. J Long-term Effects Med Implants. 2004; 14(4):317-40.

Chorilli M, Udo MS, Cavallini ME, Leonardi GR. Desenvolvimento e estudos preliminares de estabilidade de formulações fotoprotetoras contendo Granlux GAI-45 TS. Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada. 2006; 27(3):237-246.

Mansur JD, Breder MN, Mansur MC, Azulay RD. Determinaçäo do fator de proteçäo solar por espectrofotometria. An. Bras. Dermatol. 1986; 61(3):121-124.

Namukobe J, Sekandi P, Byamukama R, Murungi M, Nambooze J, Ekyibetenga Y, Nagawa CB, Asiimwe S. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and sun protection potential of selected ethnomedicinal plants used for skin infections in Uganda. Trop Med Health. 2021; 49(1):1-0.

Hieu HV, Killari KN, Ranajit SK, Samanth S, Polimati H, Ketha A, Annam SS, Nallapaty S, Koneru ST, Akula A. A Review on Therapeutic Benefits of Active Chemical Moieties Present in Polyalthia longifolia. Ind J Pharm Sci. 2021; 83(4):634-47.

Lavanya C, Rao BG, Ramadevi D. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Polyalthia longifolia. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2018; 3(4):1-7.

Atolani OA, Areh ET, Oguntoye OS, Zubair MF, Fabiyi OA, Oyegoke RA, Tarigha DE, Adamu N, Adeyemi OS, Kambizi L, Olatunji GA. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti- lipooxygenase, antimicrobial, anti-parasite, and cytotoxic activities of Polyalthia longifolia seed oil. Med Chem Res. 2019; 28(4):515-527.

Vaghela D, Pandya D, Solanki H. A Review on Pharmacological Activities of Polyalthia Longifolia. EPRA Int J Res Dev. 2021; 6(2):172-177.

Khairuzzaman M, Azad AK, Habib A, Rahman A, Ferdous J, Islam A, Rahman T, Chowdhury GT. Hypoglycemic and analgesic activity of ethanol extract of Polyalthia longifolia leaves on experimental mice. Pharmacol Online. 2018; 3:229- 234.

Jothy SL, Aziz A, Chen Y, Sasidharan S. Antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective potential of Polyalthia longifolia and Cassia spectabilis leaves against paracetamol-induced liver injury. Evid-Based Compl Altern Med. 2012; 2012:1-10.

Kaviya S, Santhanalakshmi J, Viswanathan B. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Polyalthia longifolia leaf extract along with D-sorbitol: a study of antibacterial activity. J Nanotechnol. 2011; 2011:1-5.

Dev SN and De K. Antifungal activity of Polyalthia longifolia Sonn. extracts against Candida species. Ind J Appl Pure Bio. 2016; 31(1):71-73.

Kavitha R, Rigley CM, Salomy SR, Piramila BH, Rose AF. In vitro analysis of antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities of selected medicinal plants. J Pharm Sci Res. 2021; 13(5):259- 270.

Dattatray TV, Baburao SP, Shivaji CS. Comprehensive review on Polyalthia longifolia. Trad Med Res. 2021; 6(2):1-24.

Manjula SN, Kenganora M, Parihar VK, Kumar S, Nayak PG, Kumar N, Ranganath Pai KS, Rao CM. Antitumor and antioxidant activity of Polyalthia longifolia stem bark ethanol extract. Pharm Bio. 2010; 48(6):690-696.

Olanrewaju IO, Mordi RC, Echeme JO, Bolade OP, Bashir M, Ekwuribe S, Ayo-Ajayi JI. In-vitro anti-microbial studies and GC/MS analysis of the leaf extract and fractions of Polyalthia longifolia (Engl. & Diels) Verde. Int J Phys (Conference Series) 2019; 1299(1):012087.

Kwansa-Bentum B, Agyeman K, Larbi-Akor J, Anyigba C, Appiah-Opong R. In vitro assessment of antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of Polyalthia longifolia leaf extracts on Plasmodium falciparum strain NF54. Malar Res Treatment. 2019; 2019:1-9.

Ratnasooriya WD, Pathirana RN, Gamage RN, Hasanthi KB, Hettihewa SK. In vitro sunscreen activity of Methanolic root extract of a Sri Lankan grass Heteropogon contortus. Asian J Pharm Anal. 2018; 8(2):65-68.

Kalaiselvi V, Binu TV, Radha SR. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the various leaf extracts of Mimusops elengi L. South Ind J Biol Sci. 2016; 2:24-29.

Ramamurthy V and Sathiyadevi M. Preliminary phytochemical screening of methanol extract of Indigotera trita Linn. J Plant Biochem Physiol. 2017; 5(2):1-3.

Miri A, Akbarpour Birjandi S, Sarani M. Survey of cytotoxic and UV protection effects of biosynthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2020; 34(6):e22475.

Costa SC, Detoni CB, Branco CR, Botura MB, Branco A. In vitro photoprotective effects of Marcetia taxifolia ethanolic extract and its potential for sunscreen formulations. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2015; 25:413-418.

Mbanga L, Mpiana PT, Mbala M, Ilinga L, Ngoy B, Mvingu K, Mulenga M. Comparative in vitro Sun Protection Factor (SPF) values of some herbal extracts found in Kinhasa by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry. J Phy Chem Sci. 2015; 2(4):1-6.

Sayre RM, Agin PP, LeVee GJ, Marlowe E. A comparison of in vivo and in vitro testing of sunscreen formulas. Photochem Photobiol. 1979; 29(3):559-566.

Yadav M, Chatterji S, Gupta SK, Watal G. Preliminary phytochemical screening of six medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. Int J Pharm Sci. 2014; 6(5):539-542.

Arya V, Thakur N, Kashyap CP. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Psidium leaves. J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2012; 1(1):1-5.

Cohen PA and Ernst E. Safety of herbal supplements: a guide for cardiologists. Cardiovasc Ther. 2010; 28(4):246-253.

Lin CC, Hsu YF, Lin TC. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of the tannins of Terminalia catappa L. Anticancer Res. 2001; 21(1A):237-243.

Habauzit V and Morand C. Evidence for a protective effect of polyphenols-containing foods on cardiovascular health: an update for clinicians. Ther Adv Chron Dis. 2012; 3(2):87-106.




How to Cite

Bhatt, B., Chaurasia, H., Singh, R., & Kaushik, S. (2022). Phytochemical Profile and in vitro Sun-Protective Activity of Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites Bark Extracts: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(8), 1174–1177. Retrieved from