Aphrodisiac Properties and Reproductive Hormones Concentrations of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Eremomastax speciosa in Male Wistar Rats

http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i11.25

Authors

  • Grace S. Effiong Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Othuke B. Odeghe Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Madonna University, P. M. B. 05, Elele, Nigeria
  • Nse U. Ebe Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Maryann N. Nwafor Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Madonna University, P. M. B. 05, Elele, Nigeria
  • Chinonso C. Obu Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Emmanuel O. Nwuzor Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Uyo, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Nigeria
  • Ifeanyi H. Ofoke Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Madonna University, P. M. B. 05, Elele, Nigeria
  • Michael Oviri Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Delta State University, P.M.B.1, Abraka, Nigeria

Keywords:

Reproductive Hormones, Reproduction, Phytochemicals, Medicinal plants, Eremomastax speciosa, Antioxidant

Abstract

The effects of Eremomastax speciosa leaf extract on reproductive activities was evaluated; antioxidant activities and the hytochemistry of Eremomastax speciosa were assayed using standard methods. Thirty-five matured male Wistar rats were used for the experiment and they were divided into five groups of seven rats each; groups 1 and 2 were the positive and normal controls respectively and were given Manix capsule and distilled water respectively. Groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered the ethanol extract at the doses of 400 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg respectively. Twelve matured female rats were used for the aphrodisiac assessment. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of Alkaloids, Tannins, Saponins, Terpenes and Flavonoids and the leaves showed a significant free scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 90 μg/ml. The result showed a dose-dependent significant (P<0.05) increase in Testosterone levels and also an increase in Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) which was not significant when compared with the normal control. The result also showed a dose-dependent significant increase in the mount, intromission and ejaculatory frequencies while decreasing their latencies when compared with the normal control. In conclusion, the ethanol leaf extract of Eremomastax speciosa possesses aphrodisiac potentials and could boost testosterone level which could enhance reproductive indices. 

References

Ivell R. Research in Reproduction: Challenges, Needs, and Opportunities. Front Physiology 2017; 8:46

Brehm E and Flaws JA. Transgenerational Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals on Male and Female Reproduction. Endocrinology. 2019; 160(6):1421-1435.

Breslin A. The Chemical Composition of Green Plants, Sciencing, Leaf Group Ltd, 2017.

Molyneux RJ, Lee ST, Gardner DR, Panter KE, James LF. Phytochemicals: the good, the bad and the ugly, Phytochemistry. 2007; 68:22–24.

Heneman KK and Zidenberg-Cherr SS. Phytochemicals (PDF). University of California Cooperative Extension, 2008.

Ammar A, Naoufal L, Azam B, Dennis GW, David AL. Phytochemicals: Extraction, Isolation and Identification of Bioactive Compounds from Plant Extracts. Plants (Basel). 2017; 6(4):42.

Alireza M, Marzieh B, Sepideh S, Azam B. Carotenoids: biochemistry, pharmacology and treatment. Br J Pharmacol. 2017; 174(11):1290-1324.

Okwu DE. Phytochemicals and Vitamin Content of indigenous species of South Eastern Nigeria. J sustained Agri Env. 2004; 6:30-57.

Melnyk JP and Marcone MF. Aphrodisiacs from plant and animal sources—A review of current scientific literature. Food Research International. 2011; 44(4):840–850.

Sandroni P. Aphrodisiacs past and present: a historical review. Clin Autonomic Res. 2001; 11(5):303−307.

Shamloul R. Natural aphrodisiacs. The J Sex Med. 2010; 7(1):39−49.

Krychman ML, Gubili J, Pereira L, Holstein L, Cassileth B. Female sexual enhancers and nutraceuticals. Curr Sex Health Rep. 2007; 4:177−182.

Hull EM and Rodríguez-Manzo G. Mammalian HormoneBehavior Systems, in Hormones, Brain and Behavior (2nd Ed.), 2009.

Crooks R and Baur K. Our sexuality (10th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson, 2008.

Vikas S, Mayank T, Nagendra SC, Vinod KD. Evaluation of the anabolic, aphrodisiac and reproductive activity of Anacyclus pyrethrum dc in male rats. Sci Pharm. 2009; 77:97–110.

Brown JL. Sexual Behavior. In: Gellman M.D., Turner J.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Behavioural Medicine. Springer, New York, NY.

Iba IU, Etuk EU, Akpanabiatu MI, Item E, Ekong IN. Antianaemic and nephrotoxic effect of ethanolic extract Eremomastax speciosa. Merit Res. J. of Medicine and Medical Sci. 2015; 3(1):10-12.

Oben JE, Assi SE, Agbor GA, Musoro DF. Effect of Eremomastax speciosa on experimental diarrhea. Afri. J. of Trad. Complement and Altern. Med. 2006; 3(1):95–100.

Amang AP, Tan PV, Ernestine N, Barthélemy N. Antisecretory action of the extract of the aerial parts of Eremomastax speciosa

(Acanthaceae) occurs through antihistaminic and anticholinergic pathways. Adv in Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 20(14):1-9.

Kuete V, Voukeng IK, Tsobou R, Mbaveng AT, Wiench B, Beng VP, Efferth T. Cytotoxicity of Elaoephorbia drupifera and other Cameroonian medicinal plants against drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells. BMC Comple and Alter Med. 2013; 13:250-260.

Telefo PB, Lienou LL, Yemele MD, Lemfack MC, Mouokeu C, Goka CS, Tagne SR, Moundipa FP. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used for the treatment of female infertility in Baham, Cameroon. J Ethnophar. 2011; 136:178-187.

Mboso OE, Eyong EU, Odey MO, Osakwe E. Comparative phytochemical screening of Ereromastax speciosa and Ereromastax polysperma. J Nat. Prod. Plant Resour. 2013; 3(2):37-41.

Mboso OE, Tamfu NA, Iwara IA, Eyong EU, Iqbal MC. Chemical Constituents of Eremomastax speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod Leaves and its Cytotoxic Potential on NIH-3T3 Cells. Short Communication. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop., 2020; 34(3):633-640.

Guerriero G. Vertebrate sex steroid receptors: evolution, ligands, and neurodistribution". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2009; 1163:154–68.

Copland JA, Sheffield-Moore M, Koldzic-Zivanovic N, Gentry S, Lamprou G, Tzortzatou-Stathopoulou F, Zoumpourlis V, Urban RJ, Vlahopoulos SA. "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue specific intervention possible?". BioEssays. 2009; 31(6):629–41.

Hakur MK and Paramanik V. "Role of steroid hormone coregulators in health and disease". Hormone Research, 2009; 71(4):194–200.

Nchegang B, Mezui C, Longo F, Nkwengoua ZE, Amang AP, Tan PV. Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Eremomastax speciosa (Acanthaceae) on Sexual Behavior in Normal Male Rats. BioMed Res. Int. 2016; 1-10.

Effiong GS, Odeghe OB, Ebe NU, Enidiok SE, Luke UO, Nwuzor EO, Enidiok ES. Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Gongronema latifolium (Bush Buck) on the Reproductive System of Male Albino Rats. Asian J Res Biochem. 2022; 10(2):41-51.

The Development of Science-based Guidelines for Laboratory Animal Care: Proceedings of the November 2003 International Workshop (2004).

Kosasa TS. Measurement of human luteinizing hormone. J reproduct med. 1981; 26:201-6.

Saxena BB, Demura H, Gandy HM, Peterson RE. Radioimmunoassay of human follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones in plasma. The J Clin Endocrinol Metabolism, 1986; 28(4):519-534.

Tietz NW. Clinical Guide to Laboratory Test. WB Saunders Company. 1995.

Ndam LM, Mih AM, Fongod AGN, Tening AS, Tonjock RK, Enang JE, Fujii Y. Phytochemical screening of the bioactive compounds in twenty (20). Cameroonian medicinal plants. Int. J. Curr Microbiol App Sci. 2014; 3(12):768–778.

Essien GE, Effiong GS, Ebe NU, Enoch EN, Nwuzor EO. Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Telfairia occidentalis on male reproductive activities. GSC Advanced Research and Reviews. 2020; 05(03):074–084.

Enin GN, Okokon JE, Onukak JS. Phytochemical Screening of Solenostemon monostachyus and the Effect of Extract and Fractions on Castor Oil-Induced Diarrhoea in Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(4):626-629.

Mboso OE, Eyong EU, Odey MO, Osakwe E. Comparative phytochemical screening of Ereromastax speciosa and Ereromastax polysperma. J Nat Prod Plant Resour. 2013; 3:37- 41.

Kumar S and Pandey AK. Chemistry and Biological Activities of Flavonoids: An Overview. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. The Scientific World Journal/2013/Article http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/16275

Sagnia B, Fedeli D, Casetti R, Montesano C, Falcioni G, Colizzi V. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9(8):e103999.

Onoja SO, Eke C, Ejiofor E, Madubuike KG, Ezeja MI, Omeh YN, Anaga AO. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of hydromethanol extract of Eremomastax speciosa (hochst.) Cufod leaf. Afri J Trad Comple and Alter Med. 2017; 14(6):56-63.

Gauthaman k, Adaikan PG, Prascad MG. Aphrodisiac property of Tribulus terrestris Extract in Normal and Castrated Rats. Life of Sci. 2002; 71:1385-96.

Ratusooriya WD and Dharmasiri MG. Effects of Terminalis Catappa seeds on Sexual Behavior and fertility of male Rats. Asian J Androl. 2000; 2:213-219.

Arletti R, Benelli A, Cavazzuti E, Scarpetta G, Bertolini A. ―Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behaviour of male rats, Psychopharmacology, 1999; 143(1):15–19.

Hnatyszyn O, Moscatelli V, Rondinaetal R. ―Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides with relaxant effects on the smooth muscle of Guinea pig corpus cavernosum,‖ Phytomedicine, 2004; 11(4):366–369.

Sembulingam K and Prema S. Essential of medical physiology, (7th ed.). Jaypee Brothers, New Delhi, 2016; 497-517.

Payne AH and O'Shaughnessy P. "Structure, function and regulation of steroidogenic enzymes in the leydig cell" In Payne. A.H., Hardy, M.P., Russel, L.D., Leydig cell Vienna [II]: Cache River Press, 1996; 260–85.

Okereke C and Onuoha S. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cannabis sativa on progesterone and estrogen hormones in female Wistar rats. Reprod Sys Sex Dis. 2015; 4:150-153.

Simoni M, Weinbauer GF, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E. Role of FSH in male gonadal function. Annales D’ Endocrinologie, 1999; 60:102-106.

Vasudevan DM, Sreekumari S, Vaidyanathan K. Textbook of Biochemistry for Medical Students, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd (6th ed.), India, 2011; 529-537.

Hideyuki K and Koichi N. Focus issue on male infertility. Adv Urol. 2012; 1-6.

Downloads

Published

2022-11-01

How to Cite

Effiong, G. S., Odeghe, O. B., Ebe, N. U., Nwafor, M. N., Obu, C. C., Nwuzor, E. O., … Oviri, M. (2022). Aphrodisiac Properties and Reproductive Hormones Concentrations of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Eremomastax speciosa in Male Wistar Rats: http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i11.25. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(11), 1893–1900. Retrieved from https://tjnpr.org/index.php/home/article/view/1245