Soil Modulation Effects on the Antimicrobial Potential and Toxicity of Solanum nigrum Extracts


  • Adijat F. Ogundola Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria
  • Callistus Bvenura Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa
  • Anthony J. Afolayan University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa
  • Iyabo O. Omomowo Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria


Antimicrobial activity,, Lethality rate,, Shoot extract,, Solanum nigrum,, Toxic evaluation.


The use of plants to control pathogenic microorganisms has increased users’ interest in commercial production and the best soil types for antimicrobial efficacies. This study was aimed at evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy of extracts of S. nigrum cultivated on different soil types. Experimental soils were formulated into sandy loam (control), sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, clay loam, and loam. Seedlings of S. nigrum were transplanted into each of the soils. At the onset of flowering, the plants were harvested and extracted with water and acetone. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was tested against human pathogenic bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was also determined. The lethality of brine shrimp nauplii was used to assess the toxicity of the plant extracts. The results demonstrated the efficacy of the extracts from silty clay loam soil MICs of 0.313 on Listeria species but with 1.25 mg/mL on Shigella flexneri, and Escherichia coli respectively. The 50% lethal concentration values of all the S. nigrum extracts were significantly higher than 1000 mg/mL (non-toxic value), demonstrating that none of the extracts is toxic. In the aqueous and acetone extracts, the lowest mortality rates of 3.85 and 5.90% were observed in silty clay loam and sandy loam soils, respectively. The findings of this study reveal that plant extracts from silty clay loam soil have superior antibacterial potential, indicating that soil type influences S. nigrum antimicrobial activities. Silty clay loam soil is recommended for the cultivation of S. nigrum required for antibacterial purposes.


Welz AN, Emberger-Klein A, and Menrad K. Why people use herbal medicine: insights from a focus-group study in Germany. BMC Compl. and Alt. Med. 2018; 18:92.

Karimi A, Majlesi M, Rafieian-Kopaei M. Herbal versus synthetic drugs; beliefs and facts. J. Nephropharmacol. 2015; 4(1):27-30.

Egbuna C, Kumar S, Ifemeje JC, Ezzat SM, Kaliyaperumal S. Phytochemicals as Lead compounds for new drug discovery. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2020; 364p

Ogunsuyi OB, Ademiluyi AO, Oboh G, Oyeleye SI, Dada AF. Green leafy vegetables from two Solanum spp. (Solanum nigrum L and Solanum macrocarpon L) ameliorate scopolamine‐induced cognitive and neurochemical impairments in rats. Food Sci Nutr. 2018; 6(4):860-870.

Mostafa, AA, Al-Askar AA, Almaary KS, Dawoud TM, Sholkamy EN, Bakri MM. Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts against bacterial strains causing food poisoning diseases. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2018; 25(2):361–366.

Afroz M, Akter S, Ahmed A, Rouf R, Shilpi JA, Tiralongo E, Sarker SD, Göransson U, Uddin SJ. Ethnobotany and antimicrobial peptides from plants of the solanaceae family: an update and future prospects. Front Pharmacol. 2020; 11(1):1- 15.

Samja S and Kalpana CA. Phytochemical Constituents and Nutrient Composition of Fresh and Cooked Solanum nigrum Leaves. Asian J Multid Res. (AJMR). 2018; 7(2):230-236.

Mohasana A, Sanzida A, Asif A, Razina R, Evelin T, Satyajit D, Sarker UG, Shaikh JU. Ethnobotany and Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants of the Solanaceae Family: An Update and Future Prospects. 2020.

Dar KB, Bhat AH, Amin S, Zargar MA, Masood A. Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antifungal and Phytochemical Screening of Solanum nigrum. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2017; 6(1):1-6.

Ekor M. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety. Front. Pharmacol. 2014; 4(1):1-10.

Mensah ML, Komlaga G, Forkuo AD, Firempong C, Anning AK, Dickson RA. Toxicity and safety implications of herbal medicines used in Africa. In: Phillips F. Builders (Eds.). Herbal Medicine London: IntechOpen; 2019; 63-82p.

Меntor RH, Blagica J, Таtјаnа KP. Toxicоlogical evaluation of the plant products using Brine. Shrimp (Artemia salina L.) model. Macedonian Pharm bulletin. 2014; 60(1):9-18.

Naidu JR, Ismail R, Sasidharan S. Acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of methanol extract of Mentha spicata L (Lamiaceae). Trop J Pharm Res. 2014; 13(1):101-107.

Kellogg CE. "Soil survey division staff: soil survey manual." United States Department of Agriculture, Washington 1993;1031.

Ditzler C, Scheffe K, Monger HC. Soil science division staff. Soil survey manual. USDA Handbook, 2017; 18:603.

Zhang QW, Lin LG, Ye WC. Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: a comprehensive review. Chin Med. 2018 Apr 13(20):1-26. PMID: 29692864; PMCID: PMC5905184.

National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards NCCLS. Procedures for the handling and transport of diagnostic specimens and etiologic agent approved standard. 1994. ed. 3. NCCLS document H5-A3, Wayne, PA.

Kibiti CM and Afolayan AJ. Preliminary phytochemical screening and biological activities of Bulbinea byssinica used in the folk medicine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Evid Based Compl Altern Med. 2015; 11(1):1-13.

Rashmi P and Rashmi A. Quantitative Phytochemical Analysis of Solanum nigrum Plant. World J Pharm Med Res. 2017; 3(6):232-234.

Lufuno E, Nemadodzi H, Araya M, Nkomo W, Ngezimana N, Fhatuwani M. Nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium effects on the physiology and biomass yield of baby spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). J. Plant Nutri. 2017; 40(14):2033-2044.

Quazi SS, Fatema CA, Mir M. Brine shrimp lethality assay. Bangladesh J Pharm. 2017; 12:186-189.

Otang MW, GriesonSD, Ndip NR. Assessment of potential toxicity of three South African medicinal plants using the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) assay. Afr J Pharm Pharm. 2013; 7(20):1272-1279.

Jegathambigai R, Naidu RI, Sreenivasan S. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Methanol Extract of Mentha spicata L (Lamiaceae). Trop J Pharm Res. 2014; 13(1):101- 107.




How to Cite

F. Ogundola, A., Bvenura, C., J. Afolayan, A., & O. Omomowo, I. (2022). Soil Modulation Effects on the Antimicrobial Potential and Toxicity of Solanum nigrum Extracts: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(10), 1670–1676. Retrieved from