Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose for Pharmaceutical Excipient: A Review


  • Intan M. Cahyani Doctoral Program of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  • Endang Lukitaningsih Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  • Adhyatmika Adhyatmika Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
  • Teuku N. S. Sulaiman Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia


Characterization,, Delignification,, Hydrolysis,, Microcrystalline cellulose, Pharmaceutical excipient


Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is widely used as an additive excipient in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Previous studies have been conducted on the extraction of natural MCC from plant fibers, stem powder, seeds, husks, and organic waste. This review was aimed at discussing the preparation and characterization of MCC for pharmaceutical excipients. Google, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus search were conducted using specific keywords to find recent information published between 2010 and 2022. MCC is produced in four stages: delignification, bleaching, cellulose hydrolysis using a dilute acid solution while keeping reaction conditions in mind, and drying. Several analytical techniques have been developed to characterize MCC, including Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy- dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffractometer to calculate the crystallinity index and predict the type of cellulose produced. The MCC from natural components yield of 33.0 - 91.71% and crystallinity index was between 50 - 82.4%.The properties such as true, bulk, and tapped densities, as well as flow properties (Carr's index, angle of repose, Hausner index, and compressibility index) indicate that MCC from natural materials such as grounut husk, corn stalks, ensete glaucum, wheat straw, water hyacinth, and sugarcane bagasse has the potential as tablet excipients when compared to the characteristics of commercial MCC. Therefore, they can be used as a reference for direct compression.


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How to Cite

M. Cahyani, I., Lukitaningsih, E., Adhyatmika, A., & N. S. Sulaiman, T. (2022). Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose for Pharmaceutical Excipient: A Review: Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 6(10), 1570–1575. Retrieved from