Phytochemical Analysis of Red Betel (<i>Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav</i>) Stem Extracts and its Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials


  • Candra Irawan Department of Food Nanotechnology, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia
  • Jenny A. Tambunan Department of Industrial Waste Treatment, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia
  • Silvia Rachmy Department of Industrial Waste Treatment, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia
  • Imalia D. Putri Department of Food Industry Quality Assurance, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia
  • Rosalina Department of Industrial Waste Treatment, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia
  • Suhartini Department of Chemical Analysis, Politeknik AKA Bogor, Bogor 16154, West Java, Indonesia



Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Alpha-glucosidase, Antioxidant, Red betel stem


Red betel (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) is commonly used in traditional medicine for therapeutic purposes. Although the active ingredients in red betel leaves have been analyzed, there is still limited information on thephytochemical constituents of the stem. Therefore, this research aimed to determine the compounds in red betel stem andevaluate itsantioxidant and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity.Red betel stem was extracted by successive maceration with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol.Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was done following standard procedures. Thevolatile compoundsin the extracts were identified by gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total phenolic contents of the extracts was determined by the Folin Ciocalteu’s method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assay, while the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity was detrminedin vitro by spectrophotometric method. Phytochemical screening reveal the presence of alkaloids, phenolics and flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts, while steroidal glycosides were found in the n-hexane and methanol extracts. Caryophyllene, butyraldehyde hydroxytoluene, phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethyl ethyl), octadecadienal, octadecanoic acid, tricosane, 5-cholestene-3-ol, stigmasterol, and sitosterolwere among the compounds identifiedin red betel stem extracts. The methanol extract had the highest total phenolic contents of 939.01 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g. The extracts exhibited strong antioxidant activity with IC50 < 50 mg/L.All the extracts exhibited betteralpha-glucosidaseinhibitory activitycompared to acarbose. These findings have shown red betel stemas a potential source of natural antioxidantandalpha-glucosidase inhibitor.


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How to Cite

Irawan, C., Tambunan, J. A., Rachmy, S., Putri, I. D., Rosalina, & Suhartini. (2024). Phytochemical Analysis of Red Betel (<i>Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav</i>) Stem Extracts and its Antioxidant and Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(4), 7042–7048.