Optimization of Solvent Sonication-Maceration for Enhancing Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Portulaca oleracea L. Extract Using the Simplex Centroid Design Method


  • Raihan P. Putra Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, IPB University, West Java, Bogor 16680 Indonesia
  • Syarifah I. Aisyah Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, IPB University, West Java, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
  • Popi A. Kurniatin Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, IPB University, West Java, Bogor 16680 Indonesia
  • Waras Nurcholis Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, IPB University, West Java, Bogor 16680 Indonesia




simplex centroid design, total phenolic, Portulaca oleracea, optimization, Antioxidant


The extraction of bioactive compounds from Portulaca oleracea L., a plant renowned for its diverse pharmacological effects, is significantly influenced by the choice of solvent. Therefore, this study aims to identify the optimal solvent or the combination of solvents for extracting P. oleracea using the simplex centroid design (SCD) method based on total phenolic content (TPC)
and antioxidant capacity. The plant samples were extracted using a combination of sonication and maceration methods, and subjected to optimization using Design Expert 13.0. TPC was then quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while antioxidant capacity was assessed with the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method. The results showed that acetone-water was the
solvent combination with the highest TPC, while acetone-water-methanol gave the highest antioxidant capacity. Based on a quadratic model with R² values of 0.9331 for TPC and 0.8074 for FRAP, the optimal solvent formulations were water (0.342), acetone (0.389), and ethanol (0.269), achieving a desirability level of 0.884. In addition, confirmation tests validated the results within the permissible interval (PI) values, indicating the reliability of the proposed model. Solvent combinations for P. oleracea extraction were successfully optimized through the application of SCD, yielding extract rich in phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The results were expected to serve as a foundation for future investigations of P. oleracea and its
pharmacological potential.

Author Biography

Waras Nurcholis, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, IPB University, West Java, Bogor 16680 Indonesia

Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, IPB University, Bogor 16128, West Java, 16128, Indonesia


Iranshahy M, Javadi B, Iranshahi M, Jahanbakhsh SP, Mahyari S, Hassani FV, Karimi G. A review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Portulaca oleracea L. J. Ethnopharmacol.2017; 205: 158–72.

Rahimi VB, Ajam F, Rakhshandeh H, Askari VR. A Pharmacological review on Portulaca oleracea L.: focusing on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory and antitumor activities. J. Pharmacopuncture. 2019;22(1):7–15.

Zhou YX, Xin HL, Rahman K, Wang SJ, Peng C, Zhang H. Portulaca oleracea L.: A review of phytochemistry and pharmacological effects. Biomed. Res. Int. 2015; 2015:925631.

Martins WB, Rodrigues SA, Silva HK, Dantas CG, De Lucca Júnior W, Filho LX, Cardoso J, Gomes M. Neuroprotective effect of Portulaca oleracea extracts against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of dopaminergic neurons. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2016;88(3): 1439-50.

Khazdair MR, Anaeigoudari A, Kianmehr M. AntiAsthmatic Effects of Portulaca oleracea and its constituents, a review. J Pharmacopuncture. 2019 ;22(3):122–30.

Qoeroti B, Pangastuti A, Susilowati A. Application of edible film incorporated with Portulaca oleracea extract to inhibit microbiological and oxidative damage in sausages. Biodiversitas. 2021;22(8):3556–61.

Putra RP, Aisyah SI, Nurcholis W. Benefits total phenolic and flavonoid content of Portulaca oleracea as Antioxidant and Antidiabetic: A Review. Trop. J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2023;7(2):2293–304

Kumar A, Sreedharan S, Kashyap AK, Singh P, Ramchiary N. A review on bioactive phytochemicals and ethnopharmacological potential of purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.). Heliyon. 2022; 8(1):e08669.

Santiago-Saenz YO, Hernández-Fuentes AD, MonroyTorres R, Cariño-Cortés R, Jiménez-Alvarado R. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant characterization of three vegetables (Amaranthus hybridus L., Chenopodium berlandieri L., Portulaca oleracea L.) as potential sources of phytochemicals and bioactive compounds. Food Meas. 2018;12: 2855–64.

Fernández-Poyatos MDP, Llorent-Martínez EJ, RuizMedina A. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of Portulaca oleracea: Influence of the steaming cooking process. Foods. 2021;10(1):94.

Arif Z, Zalukhu A, Karomah AH, Rafi M. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolic, and flavonoid content of water and ethanol extract of Orthosiphon aristatus. J. Jamu Indonesia. 2022;7(3):93–101.

Abubakar AR, Haque M. Preparation of medicinal plants: Basic extraction and fractionation procedures for experimental purposes. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 2020; 21(1): 1–10.

Zhang QW, Lin LG, Ye WC. Techniques for extraction and isolation of natural products: A comprehensive review. Chin. Med. 2018; 13: 20.

Azizah NN, Heryanto R, Kusuma WA. Chemical and toxicity profiles of potentially antidiabetic herbs formulated with statistical and machine learning methods. J. Jamu Indonesia. 2018;3(1):32–45.

Qomaliyah EN, Made Artika I, Nurcholis W. Optimization of the extraction process for extract yields, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity and cytotoxicity of Curcuma aeruginosa roxb. rhizome. Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019;10(3):1650–59.

Nurcholis W, Ma’rifah K, Artika MI, Aisyah SI, Priosoeryanto BP. Optimization of total flavonoid content from cardamom fruits using a simplex-centroid design, along with the evaluation of the antioxidant properties. Trop. J. Nat. Prod. Res. 2021;5(8):1382–88.

Marliani N, Artika IM, Nurcholis W. Optimization extraction for total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity with different solvents and UPLCMS/MS metabolite profiling of Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. CMU J. Nat. Sci. 2022; 21(3): e2022046.

Makkiyah FA, Rahmi EP, Susantiningsih T, Marliani N, Arista RA, Nurcholis W. Optimization of Graptophyllum pictum leaves extraction using a simplex centroid design focused on extracting flavonoids with antioxidant activity. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2023;13(05):214–21.

Juliana D, Aisyah SI, Priosoeryanto BP, Nurcholis W. Optimization of cardamom (Amomum compactum) fruit extraction using the Box–Behnken design focused on polyphenol extraction with antioxidant activity. J. Appl. Pharm. Sci. 2022;12(6):194–209.

Nurcholis W, Alfadzrin R, Izzati N, Arianti R, Vinnai BÁ, Sabri F, Kristóf E, Artika IM. Effects of methods and durations of extraction on total flavonoid and phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of java cardamom (Amomum compactum Soland ex maton) fruit. Plants. 2022;

(17): 2221.

Arista RA, Priosoeryanto BP, Nurcholis W. Profile volatile compounds in essential oils on different parts of cardamom with antioxidant activity. Biointerface Res. Appl. Chem. 2023;13(4):328.

BahramParvar M, Tehrani MM, Razavi SMA, Koocheki A. Application of simplex-centroid mixture design to optimize stabilizer combinations for ice cream manufacture. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2015;52(3):1480–88.

Nurcholis W, Marliani N, Asyhar R, Minarni M. Optimized solvents for the maceration of phenolic antioxidants from Curcuma xanthorrhiza rhizome using a simplex centroid design. J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 2023;15(1):35–41.

Irfan S, Ranjha MMAN, Nadeem M, Safdar MN, Jabbar S, Mahmood S, Murtaza M, Ameer K, Ibrahim S. Antioxidant Activity and phenolic content of sonication- and macerationassisted ethanol and acetone extracts of Cymbopogon citratus leaves. Separations. 2022;9(9):244.

Nasr A, Saleem Khan T, Zhu GP. Phenolic compounds and antioxidants from Eucalyptus camaldulensis as affected by some extraction conditions, a preparative optimization for GC-MS analysis. Prep. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2019;49(5):464–76.

Boeing JS, Barizão ÉO, e Silva BC, Montanher PF, de Cinque Almeida V, Visentainer J V. Evaluation of solvent effect on the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities from the berries: Application of principal component analysis. Chem. Cent. J. 2014;8(1): 48.

Zuorro A, Lavecchia R. Influence of extraction conditions on the recovery of phenolic antioxidants from spent coffee grounds. Am. J. Appl. Sci. 2013;10(5): 478-486.

Liu FF, Ang CYW, Springer D. Optimization of extraction conditions for active components in Hypericum perforatum using response surface methodology. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2000;48(8):3364–71.

Gong Y, Liu X, He WH, Xu HG, Yuan F, Gao YX. Investigation into the antioxidant activity and chemical composition of alcoholic extracts from defatted marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) residue. Fitoterapia. 2012;83(3):481–489.

Meneses NGT, Martins S, Teixeira JA, Mussatto SI. Influence of extraction solvents on the recovery of antioxidant phenolic compounds from brewer’s spent grains. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2013;108:152–158.

Munhoz VM, Longhini R, Souza JRP, Zequi JAC, Mello EVSL, Lopes GC, Mello G. Extraction of flavonoids from Tagetes patula: Process optimization and screening for biological activity. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn.. 2014;24(5):576–583.

Araromi DO, Alade AO, Bello MO, Bakare T, Akinwande BA, Jameel AT, Adegbola S. Optimization of oil extraction from pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves using simplex centroid design. Sep. Sci. Technol. 2017;52(8):1341–49.

Lv J, Yu L, Lu Y, Niu Y, Liu L, Costa J, Yu L.Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour. Food Chem. 2012;135(2):325–31.

Silva R, Carvalho IS. In vitro antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and protective effect against dna damage provided by leaves, stems and flowers of Portulaca oleracea (purslane). Nat. Prod. Commun. 2013;9(1):45–50.

Alothman M, Bhat R, Karim AA. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of selected tropical fruits from Malaysia, extracted with different solvents. Food Chem. 2009;115(3):785–88.

Chen WC, Wang SW, Li CW, Lin HR, Yang CS, Chu YC, Lee T, Chen J. Comparison of various solvent extracts and major bioactive components from Portulaca oleracea for antioxidant, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-α-glucosidase activities. Antioxidants. 2022;11(2):398.

Amdoun R, Khelifi L, Khelifi-Slaoui M, Amroune S, Asch M, Assaf-ducrocq C, Gontier E. The desirability optimization methodology; a tool to predict two antagonist responses in biotechnological systems: case of biomass growth and hyoscyamine content in Elicited datura

starmonium hairy roots. Iran J. Biotechnol. 2018;16(1): e1339.

Francq BG, Lin D, Hoyer W. Confidence, prediction, and tolerance in linear mixed models. Stat. Med. 2019;38(30):5603–5622.




How to Cite

Putra, R. P., Aisyah, S. I., Kurniatin, P. A., & Nurcholis, W. (2024). Optimization of Solvent Sonication-Maceration for Enhancing Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Portulaca oleracea L. Extract Using the Simplex Centroid Design Method. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(3), 6552–6557. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i3.12

Most read articles by the same author(s)