A Systematic Review on the Hypoglycemic Potentials of Mahogany (Swietenia spp.) Seeds as Antioxidants in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus


  • Husnul Khotimah Master Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Veteran Street, Malang, Indonesia
  • Ayu M. Wulandari Master Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Veteran Street, Malang, Indonesia
  • Savira O. Ainiyati Master Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Veteran Street, Malang, Indonesia
  • Wayan A. Wiyasa Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saiful Anwar General Hospital, Jaksa Agung Suprapto Street No. 2, Malang, Indonesia




Oxidative Stress, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Antioxidant activity, Swietenia spp


The prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) has increased worldwide alongside an increase in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Indonesia is endowed with a rich biodiversity and medicinal plants, including mahogany. Mahogany seeds contain flavonoids, saponins, and limonoids. Limonoid compounds have been shown to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through the activation of antioxidant enzymes. This study focuses on a systematic review of the potential of the seeds of Swietenia spp. as an antioxidant in GDM. A systematic literature review of 13 scientific articles comprising 12 original research articles and1 review article published within the last 7-8 years from various scientific databases was conducted. The original research articles were categorized into in vivo and in vitro studies with respect to the antioxidant activity of Swietenia spp. seeds. The systematic review provided a comprehensive understanding of the potential of mahogany seeds as an antioxidant and its role in the management of GDM.

Author Biography

Husnul Khotimah, Master Program of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Veteran Street, Malang, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University, Veteran Street, Malang, Indonesia


De Mendonça ELSS, Fragoso MBT, De Oliveira JM, Xavier JA, Goulart MOF, de Oliveira ACM. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Crosslink among Inflammation, Nitroxidative Stress, Intestinal Microbiota and Alternative Therapies. Antioxid. 2022; 11(1):129.

Adli FK. Diabetes Mellitus Gestasional: Diagnosis dan Faktor Risiko. J Med Hutama. 2021; 03(01):1545-1551.

Petersmann A, Müller-Wieland D, Müller UA, Landgraf R, Nauck M, Freckmann G, Heinemann L, Schleicher E. Definition, Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes

Mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2019; 127(Suppl 1):S1-S7.

Sharma AK, Singh S, Singh H, Mahajan D, Kolli P, Mandadapu G, Kumar B, Kumar D, Kumar S, Jena M. Deep Insight of the Pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Cells. 2022; 11(17):1-19.

Telrandhe UB, Kosalge SB, Parihar S, Sharma D, Lade SN. Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae). Sch Acad J Pharm. 2022; 11(1):6-12.

Alfadhli EM. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J. 2015; 36(4):399-406.

Coello FP, Azuaje DR, Catari IP, Marrero MP, Vargas CO. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Leaves and Seeds of Swietenia Macrophylla King by Chemical and Biological Methods. J Drug Res Dev. 2020; 6(2):8-11.

Yudhani RD, Nugrahaningsih DAA, Sholikhah EN, Mustofa M. The molecular mechanisms of hypoglycemic properties and safety profiles of swietenia macrophylla seeds extract: A review. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021; 9:370-388.

Maged AM, Torky H, Fouad MA, GadAllah SH, Waked NM, Gayed AS, Salem AK. Role of antioxidants in gestational diabetes mellitus and relation to fetal outcome: a randomized controlled trial. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2016; 29(24):4049-4054.

Sukardiman and Ervina M. The recent use of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. as antidiabetes type 2 phytomedicine: A systematic review. Heliyon [Internet]. 2020; 6(3):e03536.

Bakar NFA, Bakeri NA, Salleh LM, Perseni HA, Hilmi ML, Zaidel DNA. Extraction of swietenia macrophylla seed oil using supercritical carbon dioxide technique and its antioxidant, antidiabetic and toxicity properties. Chem Eng Trans. 2020; 78:523-528.

Handayani V, Najib A, Syarif RA, Mahmud A, Asha N, Ahmad AR. Standardization of Purified Extract Mahoni Seed and Antioxidant Activity. Int J PharmTech Res. 2019;


Kamaraj MC, Ramakrishnan A, Iyer DS. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Bioactive Compounds of Swietenia macrophylla Seed Support T1DM and T2DM. 2021; 7(1):267-271.

Shiming Z, Mak KK, Balijepalli MK, Chakravarthi S, Pichika MR. Swietenine potentiates the antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity of Metformin in Streptozotocin

induced diabetic rats. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021; 139:111576.

Made Jawi I, Mahendra AN, Subawa AAN, Sutirta Yasa IWP, Gunawan IWG. Comparison of antihypertensive and antioxidative effect of mahogany (Swietenia mahagoni (L.)

Jacq.) seed extract and purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) tuber extract on rodent model of hypertension. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2017; 10(2):577-582.

Assaduzzaman, Amin MZ, Rahman MH, Uddin MR, Shohanuzzaman M, Mandal P, Karmoker BA, Dipu MR, Nejum MR. Evaluation of Antibacterial, Anti-Oxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Organic Extracts of Mahogany Seeds. Eur J Med Plants. 2020; 31(20):1-7.

Mak KK, Zhang S, Chellian J, Mohd Z, Epemolu O, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Balijepalli MK, Pichika MR. Swietenine Alleviates Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in

Diabetic Mice via Lipogenesis Inhibition and Antioxidant Mechanisms. Antioxidants. 2023; 12(3):595.

Muthmainah M, Yarso KY, Purwanto B, Mudigdo A, Mustofa M. 1,4-Bis-3,4,5-Trimethoxy-Phenyl-TetrahydroFuro(3,4-C) Furan From Mahogany (Swietenia Macrophylla

King) Seed Significantly Reduces Glucose and Malondialdehyde Levels in Diabetic Wistar Rats. Bali Med J. 2019; 8(2):661.

Hammam MA, Kalil GA, Sayed SME, Mohamed II. Swietenia Mahagoni Seeds Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Protect Liver in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats. Menoufia J

Agric Biotechnol. 2020; 5(4):103-112.

Basy L La, Lestari SR S, Kadarsih S. The effects of the ethanolic extract of mahogany seeds (Swietenia macrophylla King) on the renal function of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J thee Med Sci (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran). 2015; 47(02):51-58.

Chen LC, Liao HR, Chen PY, Kuo WL, Chang TH, Sung PJ, Wen ZH, Chen JJ. Limonoids from the seeds of Swietenia macrophylla and their anti-inflammatory activities. Molecules. 2015; 20(10):18551-18564.

Hashim MA, Yam MF, Hor SY, Lim CP, Asmawi MZ, Sadikun A. Anti-hyperglycaemic activity of swietenia macrophylla king (meliaceae) seed extracts in

normoglycaemic rats undergoing glucose tolerance tests. Chinese Med (United Kingdom). 2013; 8(1):1.

Qasim M, Fujii Y, Ahmed MZ, Aziz I, Watanabe KN, Ajmal Khan M. Phytotoxic analysis of coastal medicinal plants and quantification of phenolic compounds using HPLC. Plant Biosyst. 2019; 153(6):767-774.

Pamplona S, Sá P, Lopes D, Costa E, Yamada E, Silva CE, Arruda M, Souza J, da Silva M. In vitro cytoprotective effects and antioxidant capacity of phenolic compounds from the leaves of swietenia macrophylla. Molecules. 2015; 20(10):18777-18788.

Asmara AP. A Preliminary Study Of Investigating of Compound Group Contained in Ethanolic Extract of Mahagony (Swietenia Mahagoni L. Jacq.) Seeds Related to

Α-Glucosidase Inhibition. J Nat. 2018; 18(2):49-56.

PubChem. Swietenine PP [Internet]. PubChem, National Library of Medicine. 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 18]. Available from:https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/76327465?from=summary

ChemSpider. Swietenolide [Internet]. ChemSpider. 2023 [cited 1BC Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.chemspider.com/ChemicalStructure.10404648.html

Chemnorm. Swietemahonin G [Internet]. Chemnorm. 2023 [cited 2023 Sep 18]. Available from: https://www.chemnorm.com/product/Swietemahonin_GTBZ1935.html

Haruni K, Maarit K, Markku K. Swietenia macrophylla King: Ecology, silviculture and productivity. Swietenia macrophylla King Ecol Silvic Product [Internet]. 2011;

Available from: https://www.cifor.org/publications/pdf_files/Books/BKrisnawati1110.pdf

Prasetyastuti, Sunarti, Sadewa AH, Mustofa. Effect of 7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)- chroman-4-one (swietenia macrophylla king seed) on retinol binding protein-4 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression in type 2 diabetic rats. Rom J Diabetes, Nutr Metab Dis. 2016; 23(3):255-265.

Vinayagam R and Xu B. Antidiabetic properties of dietary flavonoids: A cellular mechanism review. Nutr Metab. 2015; 12(1):1-20.

Kalpana K and Pugalendi K. Antioxidative and hypolipidemic efficacy of alcoholic seed extract of Swietenia macrophylla in streptozotocin diabetic rats. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2011; 22(1):1.

Asmara A, Nuzlia C, Maryana R. Physicochemical, fatty acid profile and antioxidant properties of mahogany (Swietenia humilis Zucc.) seeds oil. AIP Adv (Biophysics Bioeng Collect. 2023; 2583(1):1.

Lina MP, Tatiana LE, Jaime AP ntilde ez, Karol Z, Benjam iacute n AR. Antioxidants from three Swietenia Species (Meliaceae). J Med Plants Res. 2016; 10(2):8-17.

Dewanjee S, Maiti A. Swietenine, Big Leaf Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) Seed Extract as a Hypoglycemic Agent. Nuts Seeds Heal Dis Prev. 2011; 205-212.

Fadhillah F, Elfita E, Muharni M, Yohandini H, Widjajanti H. Antioxidant Compound of Endophytic Fungi Penecillium oxalicum Isolated from Swietenia mahagoni L. Jacq. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(3):543-548.

Plows JF, Stanley JL, Baker PN, Reynolds CM, Vickers MH. The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11):1-21.

Ekoh A, Orugbo PV, Okonta P. Investigating Serum Ferritin Levels and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, in two Healthcare Institutions in Delta State, Nigeria. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2023; 7(2):2449-2456.

Phoswa WN and Khaliq OP. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (Preeclampsia, Gestational Hypertension) and Metabolic Disorder of

Pregnancy (Gestational Diabetes Mellitus). Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021; 2021:Article ID 5581570.

Hussain T, Murtaza G, Metwally E, Kalhoro DH, Kalhoro MS, Rahu BA, Sahito RGA, Yin Y, Yang H, Chughtai MI, Tan B. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Balance in Pregnancy. Mediators Inflamm. 2021; 2021:Article ID 9962860.

De Andrade Balbi M, Crivellenti LC, Zuccolotto DCC, Franco LJ, Sartorelli DS. The relationship of flavonoid intake during pregnancy with excess body weight and gestational diabetes mellitus. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019; 63(3):241-249.

Lacorte LH, Yanga JF, Samson KS, Aclibon YK, Buenaventura JN, Delos Reyes JFR, Demabasa SL, Fernando AE, Laguerta CJ. Efficacy of Flavonoids in Increasing Insulin Sensitivity among Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review. Asian J Biol Life Sci. 2022; 11(2):285-293.

Salinas-Roca B, Rubió-Piqué L, Montull-López A. Polyphenol Intake in Pregnant Women on Gestational Diabetes Risk and Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Offspring: A Systematic Review. Nutr. 2022; 14(18):3753.

Nacka-Aleksić M, Pirković A, Vilotić A, Bojić-Trbojević Ž, Jovanović Krivokuća M, Giampieri F, Battino M, Dekanski D. The Role of Dietary Polyphenols in Pregnancy and Pregnancy-Related Disorders. Nutr. 2022; 14(24):5246.




How to Cite

Khotimah, H., Wulandari, A. M., Ainiyati, S. O., & Wiyasa, W. A. (2024). A Systematic Review on the Hypoglycemic Potentials of Mahogany (Swietenia spp.) Seeds as Antioxidants in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research (TJNPR), 8(3), 6472–6479. https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v8i3.1