Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose for Pharmaceutical Excipient: A Review

Intan M. Cahyani1,2, Endang Lukitaningsih4, Adhyatmika Adhyatmika 3, Teuku N. S. Sulaiman3*
1Doctoral Program of Pharmaceutical Science, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
2STIFAR “Yayasan Pharmasi”, Letjend Sarwo Edie Wibowo KM 1, Semarang, Indonesia
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia
4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +6289501332718
Recieved Date: 11 August 2022; Accepted Date: 19 October 2022; Published Date: 01 November
Cahyani IM, Lukitaningsih E, Adhyatmika A, Sulaiman TNS. Preparation and Characterization of Microcrystalline Cellulose for Pharmaceutical Excipient: A Review. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022;
 © 2022 Cahyani et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) is widely used as an additive excipient in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. Previous studies have been conducted on the extraction of natural MCC from plant fibers, stem powder, seeds, husks, and organic waste. This review was aimed at discussing the preparation and characterization of MCC for pharmaceutical excipients. Google, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus search were conducted using specific keywords to find recent information published between 2010 and 2022. MCC is produced in four stages: delignification, bleaching, cellulose hydrolysis using a dilute acid solution while keeping reaction conditions in mind, and drying. Several analytical techniques have been developed to characterize MCC, including Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffractometer to calculate the crystallinity index and predict the type of cellulose produced. The MCC from natural components yield of 33.0 - 91.71% and crystallinity index was between 50 - 82.4%.The properties such as true, bulk, and tapped densities, as well as flow properties (Carrs index, angle of repose, Hausner index, and compressibility index) indicate that MCC from natural materials such as grounut husk, corn stalks, ensete glaucum, wheat straw, water hyacinth, and sugarcane bagasse has the potential as tablet excipients when compared to the characteristics of commercial MCC. Therefore, they can be used as a reference for direct compression.

Keywords: Characterization, Delignification, Hydrolysis, Microcrystalline cellulose, Pharmaceutical excipient.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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