Effects of Cerium Oxide and Selected Heavy Metals on the Induction of Cell Death Via Oxidative Stress-Mediated DNA Damage

Pitta Sriramcharan1, Natarajan Jawahar1*, Raman Rajeshkumar2, Rajaguru Arivuselvam3,  Justin Antony4, Nagaraju Ganganagappa5, Senthil Venkatachalam1

1Department of Pharmaceutics, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & and Research, The Nilgiris, Ooty-643001, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of Biotechnology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & and Research, The Nilgiris, Ooty 643001, Tamilnadu, India
3Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru, Karnataka-570015, India
4Department of Pharmacology, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education & and Research, The Nilgiris, Ooty-643001, Tamilnadu, India
5Department of Chemistry, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka-572103, India

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +91 9486946314
Recieved Date: 18 May 2021; Accepted Date: 24 July 2022; Published Date: 04 August 2022
Citation: Sriramcharan P, Jawahar N, Rajeshkumar R, Arivuselvam R, Antony J, Ganganagappa N, Venkatachalam S. Effects of Cerium Oxide and Selected Heavy Metals on the Induction of Cell Death Via Oxidative Stress-Mediated DNA Damage. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(7): 1108-1112. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i7.11
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: © 2022 Sriramcharan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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ABSTRACT

Oxidative stress is a condition that can lead to cell death in humans and is defined as an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body. Several heavy metals, such as copper sulfate, lead acetate, and zinc acetate, are capable of causing oxidative stress. However, researchers have not yet identified the precise mechanism through which these heavy metals induce oxidative stress. Some heavy metals, including cerium oxide, iron, cobalt, vanadium, and arsenic exhibit antioxidant properties. This study was therefore conducted to compare the effects of cerium oxide and selected heavy metals on cell death induction via oxidative stress- mediated DNA damage. Cerium oxide, copper sulphate, zinc acetate, and lead acetate were tested for their scavenging abilities using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) and alkaline DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) methods. To determine whether the heavy metals could affect kidney cells, toxicity assays on Vero cells were performed. Ultraviolet light was used to  induce oxidative stress in Vero and bacterial cells. To investigate the effects of heavy metals on UV radiation-induced oxidative damage, DNA nicking assays were carried out. The results revealed that all the heavy metals exhibited oxidative stress. Only cerium oxide neutralized free radicals and was observed to have antioxidant properties. Also, heavy metals normally produce oxidative stress when exposed to UV radiation, but heavy metals such as cerium oxide prevent oxidative damage. The findings of this study reveal that cerium oxide has great potential for the treatment of oxidative stress-induced DNA damage.

Keywords: Cell death, Cerium oxide, DNA damage, Heavy metals, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species 
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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