Dodoneine, its Bicyclic Lactone and a Dihydroxyl-lupeol Palmitate from Tapinanthus globiferus


JeliJohn V. Anyam3, John B. Nvau2*, Kachollom Thomas2, Eman Santali Irvine A. Gray3, John. O. Igoli 1,3

1Department of Chemistry, Joseph Sarwuan Tarka University, Makurdi, Nigeria
2Department of Chemistry, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria
3Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, G4 0RE, Glasgow UK



Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348068036484
Recieved Date: 03 May 2022; Accepted Date: 17 July 2022; Published Date: 04 August 2022
Citation:  Akinjogunla VF, Muazu TA, Ajeigbe SO, Usman MD, Ibrahim, H Cytogenotoxicity of Aqueous Azadirachta indica A. Juss Extracts on Nile Tilapia – Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) Under Static Exposure.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(7): 1159-1164. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i7.20
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© 2022 Akinjogunla, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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ABSTRACT

The indiscriminate use of plant extracts as anti-microbial agent on culturable fish (catfishes and the Cichlids) in confinement is alarming, especially the use of neem leave extracts. Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a medicinal plant containing active biological and chemical properties. The effects of aqueous Azadirachta indica (neem) extract on the cytology and genome composition of hundred post juvenile Oreochromisniloticus with mean length and weight of 9.37±0.67cm and 8.99±1.84 g respectively was investigated in a tank culture system to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) at 96 h of exposure. Five graded concentrations of 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 and 2.0 L of the aqueous extract and control were diluted in 15 L of water in triplicate. The control group and group exposed to 1.2 L concentration of neem extract showed normal behaviour while group exposed to 1.6 and 1.8 L concentrations showed abnormal behavioural changes such as rolling movement, gulping of air, weakness, swimming on the back and eventually death was observed. There was significant difference (p<0.05) in the toxicity effects of neem extract at 14th and 28th day of exposure. Cytotoxic effect was evident by cellular apoptosis which increases with increase concentration of the extract while genotoxic effect was manifested by formation of nuclear aberrations within the erythrocytes. The results obtained in this study revealed that neem extract has clastogenic and apoptotic effects on the erythrocytes of Oreochromis niloticus.

Keywords: Azadirachta indica,Cytogenotoxicity, LC50, Oreochromis niloticus 
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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