Phytochemicals of Cynodon dactylon and the Toxicological Effect of its Aqueous Extract on Wistar Rats

Doris Akachukwu*, Joel O. Anah, Prince O. Alaebo, Chidiebere R. Onwuegbu, Patricia Wokoma
Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected] ; Tel: +2348033915908
Recieved Date: 8 February 2022; Accepted Date: 2 April 2022; Published Date: 03 May
Citation: Akachukwu D, Anah JO, Alaebo PO, Onwuegbu CR, Wokoma P. Phytochemicals of Cynodon dactylon and the Toxicological Effect of its Aqueous Extract on Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(4): 645-649.
© 2022 Akachukwu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Cynodon dactylon is a perennial grass used in the treatment of diseases such as diabetes, dropsy and syphilis. Phytochemicals of Cynodon dactylon and effect of its aqueous extract on some biochemical parameters of Wistar rats was evaluated. Sixteen (16) adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (1 - 4) of four rats each. Group 1 (control) was administered water only. Groups 2 - 4 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of C. dactylon respectively. Phytochemicals detected were: saponin (1.25 ± 0.01%), flavonoid (4.15 ± 0.15%), steroid (0.87 ± 0.02%), alkaloid (5.00 ± 0.01%) and tannin (1.62 ± 0.05%). After 21 days’ daily administration of the extract, there was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the relative liver weight, relative-kidney weights, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase activity (ALT), total bilirubin, conjugated bilirubin, creatinine and bicarbonate levels in all the groups compared to their controls. Sodium and potassium concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher compared to their controls. Liver and kidney histology did not show visible disruption of their architecture. Aqueous extract of C. dactylon showed minimal signs of toxicity at the administered doses.

Keywords: Biochemical, Cynodon dactylon, Histology, Phytochemical, Toxicological
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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