Proximate, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)-Based Kunun-zaki with Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Inclusion

Towobola Michael1, 2*, Stephen O. Owa2, Ayoyinka O. Olojede2, James A. Ndako2, Emmanuel O. Oludipe2, Ewhoritsemogha P. Dottie3, Remilekun M. Thomas2

1Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Bida, Niger State, Nigeria
2Department of Microbiology, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria
3Department of Agricultural Engineering, Landmark University, Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2348032895741
Recieved Date: 19 July 2021; Accepted Date: 29 April 2022; Published Date: 03 May
Citation: Michael T, Owa SO, Olojede AO, Ndako JA, Oludipe EO, Dottie EP, Thomas RM. Proximate, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)-Based Kunun-zaki with Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) Inclusion. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(4): 587-591
© 2022 Michael et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Kunun-zaki is a cereal-based fermented refreshing drink popular in the Northern region of Nigeria and has become accepted in other parts of the country. Granted is the fact that protein is deficient in fermented cereal beverages. In an attempt to find solution to this problem, this study investigated the upshot of groundnut inclusion in kunun-zaki from millet so as to confirm if the inclusion will increase protein content in the millet-based beverage. Groundnut-fortified kunun-zaki (GFK) was prepared at different ratios of millet and groundnut blends. Physicochemical properties were determined. Microbial counts and sensory qualities of the kunun-zaki were also evaluated for safety and acceptability. Results showed that addition of groundnut to kunun-zaki increased the protein composition significantly (p?0.05) from 1.51 to 5.45%, with 50% millet + 50% groundnut blend (50MT:50GT) having the highest concentration. Groundnut inclusion increased ash and crude fat contents but decreased crude fiber content. The turbidity and pH varied between 60.0-145.1 and 5.2-5.4, respectively. There was no significant difference in the overall consumer’s acceptability of the GFK samples compared to the control, however, in appearance, there were significant differences with 50MT:50GT, having the highest score of 7.03 out of 9.0 points. After production, 60MT:40GT sample had the highest lactic acid bacteria and least total aerobic bacteria counts. Coliform bacteria were absent in all the samples. The nutritional quality of kunun-zaki was improved with groundnut inclusion and the product had high consumer acceptability, showing that the GFK could be a preferred drink for alleviating protein energy malnutrition. 

Keywords: Kunun-zaki, Fermented beverage, Groundnut fortification, Millet, Protein malnutrition 
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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