Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques on Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Psidium Guajava L. Leaves

Shanthirasekaram Kokilananthan, Vajira P. Bulugahapitiya*, Harshi Manawadu, Chinthaka S. Gangabadage
Department of Chemistry, University of Ruhuna, Matara 81000 Sri Lanka

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +94773792977
Recieved Date: 06 March 2022; Accepted Date: 21 April 2022; Published Date: 03 May
Citation: Kokilananthan S, Bulugahapitiya VP, Manawadu H, Gangabadage CS. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques on Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Psidium Guajava L. Leaves. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2022; 6(4): 552-557 http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v6i4.15
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 © 2022 Kokilananthan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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ABSTRACT

The extraction process can play a significant role in the separation of desired bioactive compounds from plant-based material. Therefore, this study was aimed at comparing different extraction techniques on the isolation of potent phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacity in order to find the optimal extraction process. Psidium guajava leaves were selected for the study as it is known to contain diverse range of phytochemicals and used in many healthcare applications. Water was employed as the extracting solvent and four extraction methods were applied: sonication (E1, one hour, RT, 40 kHz), Soxhlet (E2, six hours, 105ºC), maceration with agitation (E3, six hours, RT, 1000 rpm), and maceration with agitation upon heating (E4, six hours, 60ºC, 1000 rpm). Standard tests were carried out for phytochemical analysis, and antioxidant capacity was assessed using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. The results revealed that P. guajava contains vast number of phytochemicals. Polyphenolics, tannins, and terpenoids appeared to be higher in the extraction process E4, flavonoids, and saponins appeared to be higher in E2, and alkaloids were higher in E3. Total antioxidant capacity was greater in extraction method E4 (432.57 ± 0.51 mg Trolox Eq/g) and the IC50 value of the DPPH radical scavenging assay was low in E3 (273.81 ± 0.07 ppm), indicating higher scavenging activity. In conclusion, the quantity of phytochemicals extracted, and its antioxidant capacity vary depending on the extraction technique. According to FRAP and polyphenolic content, the extraction technique E4 gives the best antioxidative properties.

Keywords: Antioxidants, Extraction techniques, Phytochemicals, Psidium guajava L, Spectrophotometric methods.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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