Antibacterial Activity of Acorus calamus Linn. and Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. and Their Efficacy in Shower Gel Formulation

Saranya Chaiwaree1, Krissana Khoothiam2,4, Chutamas Thepmalee 3,4, Chonthida Thephinlap3,4, Nittiya Suwannasom3,4*

_1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Payap University, Chiang Mai 50000, Thailand
_2Division of Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao, Phayao 56000, Thailand
_3Division of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao 56000, Thailand
_4Unit of Excellence of Research and Development for Cancer Therapy, School of Medical Sciences, University of Phayao 56000, Thailand
Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +66-64-62-7-1755
Recieved Date: 22 September 2021; Accepted Date: 12 December 2021; Published Date: 04 January
Citation: Chaiwaree S, Khoothiam K, Thepmalee C, Thephinlap C, Suwannasom N. Antibacterial Activity of Acorus calamus Linn. and Litsea cubeba (Lour.) Pers. and Their Efficacy in Shower Gel Formulation. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(12): 2085-2091
© 2021 Chaiwaree et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Acorus calamus and Litsea cubeba are known to have antibacterial properties. This research aimed to evaluate the anti-acne activity of A. calamus and L. cubeba against acne bacteria and to develop a shower gel. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was assessed by disc-diffusion method. The extracts were formulated into shower gel and evaluated for stability, skin irritation and satisfaction in healthy volunteers. The results of the antibacterial activity tests showed that the 5% L. cubeba extract had the highest activity with inhibition zone diameter of 9.3 ± 0.6 mm against Propionibacterium acnes, followed by 11.0 ± 1.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus. Nevertheless, 10% A. calamus extract was shown to have a better inhibitory effect against P. acnes with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.195%; however, it exerted less antimicrobial activity against S. aureus with the same MIC and MBC value of 1.25%. Formulation SGP-4 containing 1.40 g of 10% A. calamus and 0.10 g of 5% L. cubeba was the best shower gel formulation in terms of colour, foam, and pH. The A. calamus and L. cubeba extracts were successfully incorporated into shower gel formulation SGP-4 which had good stability and was non-irritating. It gave the mean overall satisfaction scores of 4.05/5. Additionally, the shower gel containing extracts also significantly possessed inhibitory activity against P. acnes, S. aureus, and Escherichia coli. Therefore, A. calamus and L. cubeba extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity and are effective natural alternatives for use in an anti-acne shower gel.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Satisfaction, Stability, Non-irritating, Plant extract.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2017: 59.83
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