Evaluation of Chronic Toxicity of Newbouldia laevis Leaf Extract in Rats

Oyetunji T. Kolawole1*, Oluwaseyi A. Adeyeba2, Olufunsho Awodele3, Akeem A. Ayankunle4, Olayemi K. Wakeel1, Waheed A. Oluogun5, Olatunde S. Olaniyi1

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria 
2Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria
3Department of Pharmacology, Therapeutics and Toxicology, University of Lagos, Nigeria
4Department of Pharmacology, Osun State University, Osogbo, Nigeria
5 Department of Histopathology, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: : +234-803-932-8444
Recieved Date: 27 September 2021; Accepted Date: 25 October 2021; Published Date: 03 November
Citation: Kolawole OT, Adeyeba OA, Awodele O, Ayankunle AA, Wakeel OK, Oluogun WA, Olaniyi OS. Evaluation of Chronic Toxicity of Newbouldia laevis Leaf Extract in Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(10): 1889-1895. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i10.30
© 2021 Kolawole et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Newbouldia laevis is a medicinal plant widely used as herbal remedy in Africa. Chronic toxicity of the leaves of the plant has not been evaluated. The study evaluated the chronic toxicity of N. laevis leaf extract (CEE) in Wistar rats. Rats were treated orally with CEE (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) for 180 days. The weight, relative organ weight, biochemical and hematological parameters were determined, and the kidney, liver, heart, and lung were examined for histological changes. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post-hoc test, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results showed that oral administration of CEE (300 and 600 mg/kg body weight) for 180 days caused a significant reduction (P<0.05) in percentage weight gain and relative organ weight compared to control. Newbouldia laevis extract also caused significant (p<0.05) increase in serum level of creatinine, urea, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphate compared to control. It caused a significant decrease in red blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, and an increase in the level of white blood cells. There were inflammation and congested vessels in the structures of the kidney, liver, heart, and lung in the treated rats compared to control. Withdrawal of CEE for 28 days after 180-day treatment resulted in slight amelioration of the adverse effects. Findings from this study suggest that prolonged use of hydroalcoholic preparation of Newbouldia laevis may cause toxic effects in vital organs of the body. Therefore, the plant should be used with caution.

Keywords: Chronic toxicity, Newbouldia laevis, rats, extract
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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