Acute Effects of Allium cepa (onions) Methanol Extract on Adriamycin-induced Hepato-renal Damage in an Experimental Rat Model

Ikenna K. Uchendu*, Doris K. Ogbonna. Emeka C. Oguji, Obiechina J Omeh, Chidubem J. Ochi, Chukwuebuka A. Udeh, Chibueze J. Obigeorge, Chinecherem M. Nnam, O. Omokungbe, Chioma A. Ikekpeazu, Amechi J. Odeku, Oluwanifemi P. Apara, Onyekachi T. Orisakwe

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2347068199556
Recieved Date: 14 September 2021; Accepted Date: 21 October 2021; Published Date: 03 November
Citation: Uchendu IK, Ogbonna DK, Oguji EC, Omeh OJ, Ochi CJ, Udeh CA, Obigeorge CJ, Nnam CM, Omokungbe O, Ikekpeazu CA, Odeku AJ, Apara OP, Orisakwe OT. Acute Effects of Allium cepa (onions) Methanol Extract on Adriamycin-induced Hepato-renal Damage in an Experimental Rat Model.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(10): 1883-1888. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i10.29
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© 2021 Uchendu et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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ABSTRACT

The livers metabolic processes protect the bodys other organs and tissues from toxic substances. Some metabolic detoxification byproducts, if present in excess, can harm the liver or kidneys. The effect of Allium cepa methanol extract (MEAC) on Adriamycin-induced acute liver and kidney damage was investigated in this study. A total of twenty-five albino rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups: For five days, Groups A-E were given the following treatments: Adriamycin (15 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to Group A (negative control); Adriamycin (15 mg/kg) plus a low dose of MEAC (2000 mg/kg p.o.) were given to group B; Adriamycin (15 mg/kg) plus a high dose of MEAC (400 mg/kg p.o.) were given to group C; Adriamycin (15 mg/kg) plus vitamin C (200 mg/kg p.o.) were given to group D (positive control); and no treatment was given to group E. Standard biochemical procedures were used to determine hepatorenal toxicity by evaluating creatinine, urea, Na+, K+, bilirubin, ALT (alanine transaminase), AST (aspartate transaminase), and ALP (alkaline phosphatase)  enzyme activity.  The intraperitoneal administration of Adriamycin caused a marked elevation of the biochemical parameters; BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatinine, K+, serum bilirubin, ALT, AST and ALP enzyme activity, with reduced Na+.  Treatment with high dose of methanol extract of Allium cepa showed significantly attenuated hepatorenal dysfunction. Histopathological studies supported the biochemical observations as the liver and kidney sections of Adriamycin-induced rats showed significant recovery following administration of MEAC. The methanol extract of Allium cepa at high dose possesses strong hepatorenal protective ability.

Keywords: Allium cepa, Adriamycin, nephroprotection, hepatoprotection, nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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