Antinociceptive and Behavioural Effects of the Leaves of Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. C. Berg (Moraceae)

Margaret O. Sofidiya*, Oluwanifemi T. Akinyeke, Mary A. Adeshakin, Olukemi A. Odukoya

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Lagos state, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +234-8033356197
Recieved Date: 19 January 2021; Accepted Date: 19 October 2021; Published Date: 03 November
Citation: Sofidiya MO. Sofidiya MO, Akinyeke OT, Adeshakin MA, Odukoya OA. Antinociceptive and Behavioural Effects of the Leaves of Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. Berg (Moraceae). Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(10): 1841-1846
© 2021 Sofidiya et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at  Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research


The leaves of Milicia excelsa (Welw.) C. C. Berg (Moraceae) is used in the treatment of inflammatory and painful disorders and as sedative in the treatment of insanity in Nigerian traditional medicine. The antinociceptive activity of the ethanol extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was investigated using acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate and formalin-induced paw licking tests while the behavioural assessment was evaluated in holeboard, elevated plus maze and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time tests. Acetylsalicylic acid, morphine or diazepam and 1% Tween 20 (10 mL/kg) were employed as positive and negative control respectively. Acute toxicity of the extract (200-3200 mg/kg, p.o.) was also determined. 
The extract inhibited nociceptive response caused by acetic acid injection and increased latency time in the hot-plate test. In formalin test, the extract decreased paw licking time in both phases. The entry and the duration of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze by animals treated with the extract (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased significantly compared to control. The number of head-dips and line crossed were decreased by the extract in hole board test, resembling the response of diazepam. In pentobarbital-induced sleeping time test, the extract reduced sleep latency and increased the duration of sleep compared to the negative control. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 3200 mg/kg. These results showed the antinociceptive, anxiolytic and sedative effects of the leaf extract of M. excelsa and provide evidence for the traditional use of the plant for pain management and insanity.

Keywords: Milicia excelsa, Antinociceptive, Anxiolytic, Sedative effect, Total polyphenolic contents
Back to Articles

ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
Index Copernicus Value (ICV) for 2017: 59.83
Scopus citescore 0.3 (2020)

Indexing & Abstracting

citescore 0.3 (2020)

j-gate logo

International Innovative Journal Impact Factor

African Index Medicus


Index Copernicus International

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License

Crossref Content Registration logo

WorldCat Discovery Service

Geneva Foundation for Medical Education and Research