Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Moroccan Citrus orchards: Chemical and Sustainable Control Methods and Priorities for Future Research


Amine Assouguem1*, Mohammed Kara2, Safaâ Benmessaoud 2, Hamza Mechchate 3, Zineb El Jabboury1, Abdellah Farah4, Abderrahim Lazraq1


1Laboratory of Functional Ecology and Genie of Environment, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Imouzzer Street, Fez, P.O, Box 2202, Morocco
2Laboratory of Biotechnology, Conservation and Valorisation of Natural Resources (LBCVNR), Department of Biology, Sidi Mohamedd Ben Abdellah University, Faculty of Science Dhar El Mahraz, Fez, Atlas, Morocco
3Laboratory of Biotechnology, Environment, Agri-Food, and Health (LBEAS), Faculty of Science Dhar El Mahraz, Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Fez BP 1796, Morocco
4Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, , Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah University, Imouzzer Street, Fez, P.O, Box 2202, Morocco

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: 069108583
Recieved Date: 3 June 2021; Accepted Date: 09 October 2021; Published Date: 03 November
Citation: Assouguem A, Kara M, Benmessaoud S, Mechchate H, El Jabboury Z, Farah A, Lazraq A. Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Moroccan Citrus orchards: Chemical and Sustainable Control Methods and Priorities for Future Research. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(10): 1703-1708 http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i10.2
Copyright:
© 2021 Assouguem et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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ABSTRACT

The Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) infects fruits from over 300 plant species, causing substantial economic losses amounting to millions of dollars annually. Though it has its origin in the Mediterranean basin, it has spread to Asia, Europe, Central and South America, Africa, Australia, etc. Its control in Morocco has been principally based on chemical sprays. The review aims to provide information on control methods of Ceratitis capitata, mainly in citrus orchards in Morocco. Relevant literature was sourced from different search engines: Google scholar, science direct, PubMed, etc. The article highlighted the principal findings of previous studies, discussed current control methods, and proposed new innovative research and sustainable approaches to control medflies.
Setting up an integrated long-term ecological monitoring program in Morocco and different African countries and incorporating new technologies into monitoring programs are urgently needed to fight this devastating pest. These programs must consider the climate conditions, phenology, infestation rates, and propagation speed of pests. Other methods include new organic pests and trapping, sterile insect technique (SIT), parasitoid enemies such as Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, pathogens like Beauveria bassiana, and introducing a self-limiting genetic method. These fundamental elements are suggested to control pests, respect the environment and public health.

Keywords: Ceratitis capitata, Citrus orchards, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, Medflies, Morocco.
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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