Effects of Botanicals on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus Infecting Maize

Ogechukwu C. Dozie-Nwakile1, Calistus D. Nwakile2, Ikenna K. Uchendu1*, Henshaw U. Okoroiwu3, Ngozi F. Onyemelukwe1

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State Nigeria
3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: [email protected]; Tel: +2347068199556
Recieved Date: 11 January 2021; Accepted Date: 19 May 2021; Published Date: 03 June
Citation: Dozie-Nwakile OC, Nwakile CD, Uchendu IK, Okoroiwu HU, Onyemelukwe NF. Effects of Botanicals on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus Infecting Maize.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2021; 5(5):943-951. http://www.doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i5.24
© 2021Dozie-Nwakile et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Finding a cost-effective measure to prevent fungal deterioration of grains in the global world has become imperative. Effects of selected botanicals on growth and aflatoxin (AF) production by Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) in maize were investigated. A. flavus isolated from field samples and stored samples of maize, collected in 18 batches of five varieties, were cultured with various edible plant: methanol extracts (Annona muricata and Moringa oleifera) and essential oils (Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum) onto mycological media using standard microbiological methods. Aflatoxins levels in all the maize batches were assayed using competitive enzyme immunoassay. The total natural aflatoxin was reduced to various levels by all the botanicals, with percentage reduction ranging from 0 to 91.8% for Cymbopogon citratus,7.1 to 88.3% for Ocimum gratissimum, 0 to 77.9% for Moringa oleifera and 23.3 to 90% for Annona muricata, which had the highest effect; the difference in percentage reduction was statistically significant (p<0.05). Similarly, in in-vitro studies using plate experiments, the various plant extracts showed significant reductions in counts/mean clearance zone diameter according to the extract concentration on the fungus. The botanicals studied significantly inhibited the growth of A. flavus; hence reduction in aflatoxin production. 

Keywords: Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin-contaminated food, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimium gratissimum, Annona muricata, Moringa oleifera<
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ISSN: 2616-0684 (Print)
ISSN: 2616-0692 (Online)
DOI: 10.26538/tjnpr
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