Evaluation of the Potential Mechanisms of Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Leave Extract in Wistar Rats

Osmund C. Enechi1, Emmanuel S. Okeke1,2,3*, Ndidi E. Nkwoemeka2, Nicodemus E. Nwankwo1,2, Izuchukwu Agogbua1, Benneth M. Ebere1
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria
2Natural Science Unit, School of General Studies, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria
3School of the Environment and Safety Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, PRC

Corresponding Author: emmanuel.okeke@unn.edu.ng; Tel: +2348035277554
Recieved Date: August 28, 2020; Accepted Date: October 27, 2020; Published Date: 02 November 2020
Citation: Enechi OC, Okeke ES, Nkwoemeka NE, Nwankwo NE, Agogbua I, Ebere BM. Evaluation of the Potential mechanisms of Anti-inflammatory Activities of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. Leave Extract in Wistar Rats. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(10):806-811.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i10.24
Copyright: © 2020 Enechi et al This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Lam.) are medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine due to its immense therapeutic properties.  The study evaluated the in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of the methanol extract of the leaves of Fagara zanthoxyloides Lam. (Lam.) to validate its use in folklore medicine. The phytochemical screening of the leaf extract revealed the presence of different secondary metabolites (tannins, saponin, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and glycosides) in varying proportions. In vivo anti-inflammatory study was done using the paw oedema (egg albumin-induced) method while the in vitro anti-inflammatory studies were performed for the extract using phospholipase A2 inhibition, calcium chloride-induced platelet aggregation assays and hypotonicity-induced hemolysis of Red blood cell for membrane stabilization assay. Different concentrations of the extract (50, 100 and 250 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) suppressed the development of paw oedema induced by egg albumin which compared well with indomethacin (10 mg/kg b.w) when compared to the control. The extract (1.0, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, 1.8 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited phospholipase A2 activity in a concentration-related manner comparable to that of prednisolone (1.0, 1.4,1.6 mg/mL) when compared to the control.  Similarly, the extract (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/mL) significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited CaCl2-induced platelet aggregation in a concentration and time-dependent manner when compared to the control. Additionally, varying concentrations of the extract (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 mg/mL) also significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited hypotonicity induced hemolysis of HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell). The results indicate that the extract possess potential anti-inflammatory activity.

Keywords: Inflammation, Membrane stabilization, Paw oedema, Phospholipase A2, Platelet aggregation.
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