In-vitro Evaluation of the Trypanocidal Activity of Andrographis paniculata Against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

Zakari Ladan1*, Timothy O. Olanrewaju2, Dominic B. Maikaje3, Rolayo T. Emmanuel2, Levi A. Apinega4, Timothy J. Isaiah1, Nathaniel G. Isaiah1, Peter M. Waziri5
1Department of Chemistry, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
2Department of Human African Trypanosomiasis Research, Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research, Kaduna, Nigeria
3Department of Microbiology, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
4Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
5Department of Biochemistry, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: Zakariladan@gmail.com; Tel: +2347030475898
Recieved Date: August 12, 2020; Accepted Date: October 26, 2020; Published Date: 02 November 2020
Citation: Ladan Z, Olanrewaju TO, Maikaje DB, Emmanuel RT, Apinega LA, Isaiah TJ, Isaiah NG, Waziri PM.   In-vitro Evaluation of the Trypanocidal activity of Andrographis paniculata Against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(10):777-783.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i10.19
Copyright: © 2020 Ladan et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Andrographis paniculata belongs to the Family Acanthaceae and is used for medicinal purposes due to its broad-spectrum activities against cancer, hepatitis, HIV, anti-inflammatory, management of cardio-vascular diseases and boosting the immune system. The purpose of this research is to establish the in-vitro trypanocidal activity of Andrographis paniculata against Trypanosoma brucei brucei
The dried leaf portion was pulverized in a mortar to semi-fine powder and macerated with 70% ethanol. The ethanolic extract was fractionated with hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol to afford their various crudes which were subjected to in-vitro tests against Trypanosoma brucei brucei using Diminazene diaceturate as a standard control.
Apoptosis was observed at higher concentrations (10, 5, and 2.5 mg/mL) but trypano-static at lower concentration (1.25 mg/mL). Trypanocidal activity of the various extracts showed comparable inhibitory effect (100%) on   Trypanosoma brucei brucei with the standard drug. From this study, T. b. brucei (Federe strain) was visible in bloodstream within Trypanosoma brucei brucei 7 days post infection (dpi) and reached cerebrospinal fluid within 11 dpi. Data on acute toxicity showed the plant to be non-toxic on the experimental animals. 
A. paniculata has demonstrated medicinal properties used in traditional medicine in some countries to treat various diseases. The potentials of the extracts used from this study showed the extract to possess trypanocidal activity in the management of T. b. brucei. Further purification of the ethyl acetate fraction for structural and in-vivo studies against Trypanosoma brucei brucei is recommended.

Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Andrographis paniculata, Trypanocidal activity, Fingerprinting, Phytochemical screening.
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