Evaluation of Cancer Chemopreventive Potentials of Bixa orellana L. Leaf Extract

Daniel L. Ajaghaku1*, Ndidiamaka H. Okorie2, Mary N. Okwor1, Chika J. Mbah3
1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria
3Department of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

Corresponding Author: daniel.ajaghaku@esut.edu.ng; Tel: +2347035601780
Recieved Date: August 21, 2020; Accepted Date: October 03, 2020; Published Date: 03 October 2020
Citation: Ajaghaku DL, Okorie NH, Okwor MN, Mbah CJ. Evaluation of Cancer Chemopreventive Potentials of Bixa orellana L. Leaf Extract. Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(9):636-642.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i9.23
Copyright: © 2020 Ajaghaku et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
ABSTRACT

Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae) is used in ethnomedicine for its anticancer/antitumor effects. This study evaluated the cancer chemopreventive mechanisms of B. orellana leaf extract. The methanol extract and fractions of the leaf extract were subjected to phytochemical screening. Inhibition of cancer initiation mechanisms was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and metal chelation in vitro assays. Protection against oxidative damage induced cancer was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress animal model. Inhibition of inflammation-mediated carcinogenesis was evaluated using Complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic inflammation. Characterization of the most active fraction was done using high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) technique. Among phytochemicals detected in the extract, phenolic compounds and alkaloids were the most abundant. Ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) showed the best DPPH scavenging activity with 73.16 µg/mL IC50 value. This fraction was also the most effective in chelating metal ions with 860 EDTA Eq/g. The extract and EAF at 200 and 400 mg/kg produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation with significant (p<0.05) increase in catalase and superoxide dismutase antioxidant enzymes activity. Significant (p<0.05) inhibition of chronic inflammatory edema was also produced by treatment with ethyl acetate fraction from the 7th day. Serum nuclear factor-kappa-b (NF-KB) and interleukin (IL)-6 were significantly (p<0.05) suppressed by the extract and EAF. HPLC fingerprint of the purified EAF revealed Isofistularin-1 alkaloid as the most abundant compound. Phenolic compound – methyl gallate was also identified. B. orellana exhibited cancer chemopreventive potentials which can be explored in anticancer drug discovery. 

Keywords: Bixa orellana, Cancer chemoprevention, Isofistularin-1, Inflammation, Oxidative stress.
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