Effects of Aqueous and Butanol Leaf Fractions of Olax subscorpioidea Oliv. on Inflammatory Cytokines in Wistar Rats

Saidi Odoma1,2*, Abdulkadir U. Zezi3, Muhammed N. Danjuma3, Ahmed Abubakar4, Garba M. Magaji3

1Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria
2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Kampala International University, Uganda
3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
4Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Nigeria

Corresponding Author: odoma.s@ksu.edu.ng; Tel: +2348027547778
Recieved Date: August 12, 2020; Accepted Date: September 26, 2020; Published Date: 03 October 2020
Citation: Odoma S, Zezi AU, Danjuma MN, Abubakar A, Magaji GM. Effects of Aqueous and Butanol Leaf Fractions of Olax subscorpioidea  Oliv. on Inflammatory Cytokines in Wistar Rats.Trop J Nat Prod Res. 2020; 4(9):606-611.  https://doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v4i9.19
Copyright: © 2020 Odoma et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Olax subscorpioidea leaf is used traditionally in the management of yellow fever, painful swellings, and venereal diseases. Its anti-inflammatory activity has been reported; furthermore, an anti-inflammatory guided fraction of its leaf extract revealed that the aqueous and butanol fractions were the most active. Considering the involvement of cytokines in inflammation, we investigated the effects of the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous and butanol leaf fractions on inflammatory cytokines in Wistar rats.
Rats were divided into four groups (n = 6) and were orally administered distilled water (1 mL), aqueous/butanol fraction (1,000 mg/kg), and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300 mg/kg). One hour post-treatment, carrageenan (0.1 mL, 1% w/v) was intraperitoneally injected into the right hind paws of the rats.  Four hours post inflammation induction, the rats were anesthetized and the hind paws cut-off, homogenized, and centrifuged before collecting the paw exudates. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines in the exudates were measured.
Both fractions significantly (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) reduced the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and epidermal growth factor (EGF); and increased the concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-5, IL-6, and interferon-? (IFN-?). 
The result of the study suggests that the aqueous and butanol leaf fractions of Olax subscorpioidea may be exhibiting their anti-inflammatory activities via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, VEGF, and EGF and/or stimulation of the synthesis of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-5, IL-6, and IFN-?.

Keywords: Cytokines, inflammation, inflammatory mediators, interferon-?, interleukins, Olax subscorpioidea.
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